THE CATEGORIES OF SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCAL .The categories of sustainability in local projects the
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Ambiente & Sociedade
Associao Nacional de Ps-Graduao e
Pesquisa em Ambiente e Sociedade
Guilherme, Marcia Lucia
The categories of sustainability in local projects the equator prize at WSSD- Johannesburg- 2002
Ambiente & Sociedade, vol. 7, nm. 2, julio-diciembre, 2004, pp. 173-196
Associao Nacional de Ps-Graduao e Pesquisa em Ambiente e Sociedade
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COMUNICAO DE RESULTADOS DE PESQUISA/RESEARCH RESULTS
THE CTHE CTHE CTHE CTHE CATEGORIES OF SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCATEGORIES OF SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCATEGORIES OF SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCATEGORIES OF SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCATEGORIES OF SUSTAINABILITY IN LOCAL PROJECTSAL PROJECTSAL PROJECTSAL PROJECTSAL PROJECTSThe Equator Prize at WSSDThe Equator Prize at WSSDThe Equator Prize at WSSDThe Equator Prize at WSSDThe Equator Prize at WSSD- Johannesburg- 2002- Johannesburg- 2002- Johannesburg- 2002- Johannesburg- 2002- Johannesburg- 2002
MARCIA LUCIA GUILHERME *
INTRODUCTION: THE WORLD SUMMIT ONSUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT AND THE
In 1992, the Rio Earth Summit focused the international community onthe critical linkages between environment and development.1 In 2000, dealing withthe concepts of globalization, the acceleration of environmental degradation, thedevelopment in policies, institutions and technologies, and the remaining of socialinequality and poverty, 2 the world formalized goals that have been discussed sinceafter 1992 through the United Nations Summits.3
These goals of calling for reductions in poverty, improvements in healthand education, and protection of environment were expanded and endorsed by 149heads of state and the United Nations General Assembly in the Millenium Declaration.An integration of this Declaration with the International Development Goals resultedin the Eighth Millenium Development Goals,4 which took into account the conservationof biodiversity, the combat of deforestation, the management of sustainable lands, theprotection and promotion of human health and the combat of poverty. The EighthMillenium Development Goals were the basis for the formulation of programs, by theUNDP, to respond to those challenges, and to be discussed at the World Summit onSustainable Development, in Johannesburg, 2002. One of these programs came to bethe Equator Initiative, and the institution of the Equator Prize. The communitiesnominated for this prize, as mister Kofi A Annan said, demonstrated that the MilleniumGoals are within reach, and that there are effective local solutions to many of the
* Ph.D. in Environmental Sociology IFCH/ UNICAMP/ SP/ BRASIL. Environmental Analyst CETESB/SMA/ SP/ BRASIL. Technician responsible for the indication of the project Cananeia Oyster ProducersCooperative to the Equator Prize and participant of the event at Ubuntu Village- Johannesburg/ South Africa- August 2002
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most pressing challenges of human development, including poverty and biodiversityloss. 5
This report tries to make one initial consideration about the 27demonstration-projects and communities selected by the Equator Prize, in relation tothose goals, particularly to the ones included in the Environmental Sustainability andGlobal Partnership for Development Goals. It also states, as a personal observation,that the Equator Initiative has been a congregation of multiple and differentiatedcultural manifestation, of political diversification, and of environmentally rich projectswhich were put together in a meeting with the same spiritual feeling of solidarity.
Or, as Mister Ian Johnson said, we can reduce world poverty in ways thatadvance equity and environmental sustainability, but it will require collectivecommunity action, from small civil society organizations to large multinationalcorporations, from local and national governments to international agencies. We mustall play our part. 6
A) THE EQUATOR INITIATIVE
The Equator Initiative is a program promoted by the United NationsDevelopment Programme - UNDP, in partnership with the United Nations Foundation,The World Conservation Union- IUCN, The Nature Conservancy, the InternationalDevelopment Research Center- IDRC, Brazil Connects, the Government of Canadaand the Television Trust for the Environment (TVE). It provides a vital link betweenlocal work of communities to combat poverty and sustain biodiversity and a globalaudience dedicated to the advancement of human development (Annan, K. 2002).
The ideas for the creation of the Equator Initiative came, at first, fromthe comprehension that the challenges of poverty and biodiversity loss cannot be dealtwith isolation, and more, that the two issues are inseparable, specially in the EquatorBelt where the worlds greatest concentrations of poverty and biodiversity overlap (Wirth, T. 2002).7 This initiative addresses local development challenges and workswith issues of structure set by the World Summit on Sustainable Development - water,energy, health, agriculture and biodiversity and ecosystem services, also recognizingthat partnership is another central theme of the Conference (Annan, K. 2002).
This initiative promoted the Equator Prize which, through the EquatorInitiative Advisory Committee, asked for local environmental projects in countrieswithin the Equator influence, where the worlds greatest concentration of both humanpoverty and biological wealth is located. 420 nominated projects from 77 countrieswithin the Equatorial Belt were evaluated. 27 projects were selected by the EquatorPrize Jury for final consideration .8 This initiative placed these nominated communitiesat the cutting edge of the transformation of global knowledge on sustainabledevelopment into concrete action (Brown, M. M. 2002).9
These 27 projects represent 19 countries in the three continents, Africa,Asia and Pacific, and Latin America and the Caribbean. In this last one, projects ofWorld Heritage Sites have been also selected. All of these projects reflected
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communities that worked to reduce poverty and conserve biological diversity in theirenvironmental programs.
The African continent presented seven projects from five countries,Cameron, Comoros, Kenya (two), Madagascar, and Tanzania (two). Asia and Pacificcame with six projects from four countries, Fiji, India (three), Malaysia and Thailand.Latin America and the Caribbean, at the end, presented fourteen projects from tencountries, three being from the World Heritage Sites. The countries are Belize, Brazil(four), Colombia, Cuba, Guatemala (two, one being from the World Heritage), Mexico,Nicargua, Per, Costa Rica (World Heritage) and Honduras (World Heritage).
The selected projects are, by continent: AFRICA, Support Group forConservation and Sustainable Development Initiatives (CACID) Cameroon; MohliMarine Park Comores ; Honey Care Africa Ltd. Kenya ; Il Ngwesi Group Ranch Kenya ; Association of Manambolo Natives (FITEMA) Madagascar ; HASHISoil Conservation Project Tanzania ; Suledo Forest Community Tanzania; ASIAAND PACIFIC, Fiji Locally-Managed Marine Area Network Fiji ; Medicinal PlantsConservation Centre India ; Kerala Kani Samudaya Kshema Trust India ; TribalCommunities of the Jeypore Tract of Orissa India ; Uma Bawang ResidentsAssociation (UBRA) Malaysia ; CBIRD Center, Sub Tai Thailand ; LATINAMERICA AND CARIBBEAN, Toledo Institute for Development and Environment(TIDE) Belize ; Green Life Association of Amaznia (AVIVE) Brazil ; AmazonLife Project Brazil ; Canania Oyster Producers Cooperative Brazil ; Couro Vegetalda Amaznia Project Brazil ; Inter-institutional Consortium for SustainableAgriculture on Hillsides/River Cabuyal Watershed Users Association (CIPASLA -ASOBESURCA) Colombia ; Empresa Forestal Integral de Bayamo Cuba ;Organizacin Manejo Y Conservacin, S. C. / WCS-Guatemala Guatemala ; Cafde la Selva Mexico ; Programa de Campesino a Campesino, Siuna (PCaC) Nicaragua ; Eseeja Native Community of Infierno Peru; WORLD HERITAGE SITES,Iniciativa Talamanca - Costa Rica ; Asociacin de Comunidades Forestales de Petn(ACOFOP) Guatemala; Mosquitia Pawisa Agency for the Development of theHonduran Mosquitia (MOPAWI ) Honduras.10
B) STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS OF THE PROJECTS
The projects work with different kinds of natural resources (environmentalactivities), and apply the concept of sustainable development in different situations,maintaining the great involvement of the local communities in the organization, thedevelopment and the implementation of their propositions. So, local sustainabledevelopment has been seen here from the point of view of these communities, theirculture and technological knowledge, organization of work, articulation with otherorganizations (as NGOs and local, regional and national government) and financialstructure, from global and local agencies.
The report of IDRC 11 analyses the 27 selected communities based onseven main qu