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    What is ecosystem

    The components of environment living andnon-living organisms interact and functiontogether as a unit called ECOSYSTEM

    Components of environment

    Living non-living

    Plants and animals Atmosphere, water, mountainAnd other physical components

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    Types of ecosystem

    Pond, Lake, River, Ocean Ecosystems.

    Forest ecosystem Desert ecosystem.

    For survival of life, both living organisms and itsenvironment influence each other in anyecosystem.

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    Biotic and Abiotic factors

    Living environment is called biotic

    environment. Non living environment is called Abiotic


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    Ecology: the scientific study of theinteractions of living organisms with otherliving organisms and with the physicalenvironment.

    Environment = Biotic components + Abioticcomponents.

    Biotic components: Living organisms

    Abiotic components: Nonliving components.

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    Structure of an Ecosystem

    The structure of an ecosystem include

    Biotic factor Abiotic factor

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    Abiotic Components

    pH value: pH of the soil and water. Most organismssurvive well in neutral or nearly neutral environment

    Light intensity: affects the distribution and growth ofplants and animals

    Temperature: most living organisms can onlytolerate a narrow range of temperature (0oC to

    45oC): exceptional to certain species, example:thermopile bacteria that can survive in hot springs.

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    Abiotic Components

    Humidity: amount of water vapour present in

    the air. Humidity affects the rate of water lossby plants and animals

    Topography: physical features of land.Topographic factors are altitude, gradient

    and aspect

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    Topographic Factors

    Altitude: Higher altitude associates with loweratmospheric pressure and temperature. Different

    plants grow at different altitudes. Gradient : The steepness of a slope. Steep slopes

    result in rapid drainage and run off. Aspect: associated with the direction of the wind.

    The slopes of a mountain facing the direction of the

    wind received more rain. Microclimate: climate of a microhabitat.

    Microclimate includes the humidity, temperature,light intensity and atmospheric conditions

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    Biotic Components

    PRODUCER (green plants)

    CONSUMER primary consumer, secondaryconsumer, tertiary consumer

    DECOMPOSER (bacteria and fungi).

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    It includes green plant, herbs, shrubs, and smallgreen organisms living in water.

    With the help of chlorophyll a green pigment,produce there own food by taking solar energy orlight and carbon dioxide from atmosphere, water andmineral etc.

    Producers convert solar energy into chemical energyinside the body with the help of inorganic substancessuch as water, Co2, and enzymes.

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    The animals including human beings

    constitute the consumers. Three category of consumers

    Herbivores:- eating plants

    Carnivores:- eating animals

    Omnivores:- eating both

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    Some organisms such as bacteria or fungiwhich depends upon the dead organicmatters for their food are called theDecomposers.

    These decomposers break down thecomplex organic matters present in deadanimals and plants into simpler substancesand release them for the use of theproducers.

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    It is the largest biological system. It consist ofsmaller functional unit called ECOSYSTEM.

    There is a interaction between organisms whomay be his family member or other form ofspecies. He also interact with the environmentwhich give him energy and matter.

    He gets food from animals and plants and alsohe make use of soil, water and air.

    ECOSYSTEM= eco + system ,where ecomeans environment and system means a set of

    interacting and interdependent between livingand non-livin com onents.

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    Definition of Ecosystem

    Acc. To Tanslay :- it is the system of resulting from

    the interaction of living and non-living components of

    the environment . It has both structure and function .The structure is related to the species and diversity

    and function is related to the flow of energy and

    cycling of material through the structure


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    Feature of Ecosystem

    Ecosystem represents sum of all living organismsand non-living components.

    Ecosystem is composed of three basic components;energy, biotic and abiotic (habitat)

    There are the complex set of interaction betweenbiotic and abiotic components on the one hand and

    between the organisms on the other hand.

    It is an open system where continuously in and outof energy and matter is taken place.

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    Feature of Ecosystem

    It should be in stabilized form unless there is adisturbance of one or more limiting factor.

    It is powered by various forms of energy.

    It is the functional unit where biotic and abioticcomponents are interacting with each other throughcyclic mechanisms. Such as energy flow cycle, water

    cycle, mineral cycle, sediment cycle etc.

    Ecosystem has its own productivity which is theprocess of building organic matter based onavailability and the amount of energy passing

    through the ecosystem.

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    Types of ecosystem



    crop land, garden ,park,kitchen garden


    Grass land, forestand desert



    LENTIC(Stagnant water) lake pond

    LOTIC(flowing water) river,


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    Abiotic components

    Inorganic substances or nutrient:- cabondioxide,nitrogen, oxygen, water and soil (minerals).

    Organic substances :- such as proteins,carbohydrates, fats etc. it link abiotic componentswith biotic components.

    Climatic factor :-

    Atmospheric (such as temperature, light, wind,rainfall etc)

    Edapic :- (pertaining to soil)

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    Biotic components

    Autotrophic / Producers

    Heterotrophic / consumers




    Decomposers or saprotrops

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    Functions of an Ecosystem( interaction b/w Biotic And Abiotic


    Producers (green plant) fix radiant energy (solarenergy) with the help of mineral (C,H2,N2,P,Fe

    etc) that is taken from the edapic (soil) or Arialenvironment (nutrient pool) , they built up thecomplex organic matter (carbohydrates, protein andnucleic acid etc) these are their food so, with the

    help of solar energy they convert the chemicalenergy of the food to kinetic energy and finally heatenergy.

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    Functions of an Ecosystem

    The animals (consumers) eat up the plantsand other animals as food so, the energy istransferred to food to animals.

    When the plants and animals die, thendecomposers (like certain bacteria and fungi)act on their dead bodies and decomposethem into simple material like carbon dioxide,water and minerals, which go back to the airand soils from where they come from.

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    Functions of an Ecosystem

    The co2 from air, water and minerals from waterbodies and soil are again taken up by the green

    plants along with the solar energy to make their foodand the above process is repeated again and again.This leads to continuous functioning of Ecosystem.

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    Energy flow through the Ecosystem

    The transfer of energy and matters take place in theprocess of predators and pray relationship in a food

    chain. The major source of energy is the sun.

    Out of total energy from the sun only 10% of theenergy is received and the rest is reflected andrefracted by atmosphere, earth surface and object

    like plant. only 1%of total energy received by theplant is used in the process of photosynthesis.

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    Energy flow through the Ecosystem

    The energy from the sun enters the livingcomponents through the green plants. Energy from

    the organic compound (food) produced by plant ispartly utilized by the plant for their metabolismactivities like respiration and growth and tissuebuilding. Major proportion of heat is not utilized and it

    release in the form of heat.

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    Energy flow through the Ecosystem

    Producers (plants) consumed by herbivores(chemical energy stored in plants istransferred to the animals).

    Some portion of energy is utilized inmetabolism activities such as metabolism

    tissue respiration, and growth. Major portionof this energy is wastage in the form of heatby herbivorous.

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    Energy flow through the Ecosystem

    Her. Is consumed by the carnivorous, herethe transfer of energy in the form of food takeplace. only some portion of the energy isutilized in the metabolism and rest isreleased in the form of heat.

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    Energy flow through the Ecosystem

    This process of transfer energy from one tropic levelto the next in the food chain. the unutilized heat

    released by the living organism is collectively calledcommunity heat.

    The process in the transfer of energy in the foodchain is called the energy flow .

    Only the 10%of the total energy is transfer to thenext tropic level. so, there is gradual decline in theamount of energy transfer to the next tropic levels.

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    Energy flow through the Ecosystem

    Therefore longer the food chain, lesser theenergy available to the final level. Hence thefood chain cannot have the more than thefive/six levels.

    According to the above reason the

    herbivorous get more energy rich food thancarnivorous.

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    Concept of Ecology

    Ecosystem is the fundamental concept of ecology. itis the basic function of ecology. It include population,

    community which influence each other.

    the part of ecosystem is inseparable from thewhole. A pond, a lake, forest etc.

    A most remarkable feature of an ecosystem is that it

    is capable of self maintenance, self regulation .

    An ecosystem is not a static system it is in a state ofconstant state of change and homeostasis. Thischange involve the change in structure, processes of

    living beings over time.

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    Concept of Ecology

    Our country has a variety of an ecosystem

    Indo genetic plan high productivity potential area.

    Desert eco. have high temperature.

    Ladakh --- low temperature.

    Low rain fall area.

    High rain fall area. Mountains of Himalayas and nilgires.

    Delta and wetland.

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    Concept of Ecology

    Human interventions sometime creates theunbalance in the ecosystem. Eg; deforestation,

    urbanization etc.

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    Selected concept of Ecology

    Ecology concept

    Biological clock


    Food chain

    Nutrient cycle

    Carrying capacity

    Limiting factor


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    The circulation of chemical elements in biospherefrom the environment to organisms and back to the

    environment .

    eg. water cycle, carbon cycle etc.

    Water cycle

    Sea water get evaporated and turned to laden sky itgoes towards the hilly area and turned to the rainfall.

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    Carbon cycle

    Carbon is released into the atmosphere through thehuman activity, this co2 is used by the plant tomanufacture their food and release o2.

    But due to the destruction of forest can have the effectsof forest. human activity which include the release of

    co2 is


    Emission of co2 through industrial process.


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    There is another aspect of cycle that is relates to therecycling of product to conserve the natural

    resources or decrease in pollution.

    Eg. Traditional batteries contain mercury andcadmium both that substances are toxic in natureshould not allowed to dump as wastage. Duracell

    uses 50% of recycled material in their batteries.Varta was the first US company launched themercury free batteries in england.

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    A community is defined as any assemblage ofpopulation living in a habitat that has the

    characteristics in addition to its individual andpopulation component.

    Diversity is the characteristics of community. Inany community organisms of different species

    live together in a harmonious way and not asindependent beings . There is an interdependentbuilt into the concept of community.

    The changes brought into the envt. May disturb

    the community and lead to the end of certains ecies like Dinosaurs, red andas etc.

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    Food Chain

    In an ecosystem all the plants and animals dependson each other for their nutrient .the sun is the original

    source of energy in most of the ecosystem. Producers fulfill the need of carnivores it full the

    need of omnivores and in this way energy istransferred from one level to the next level of chain

    Only the 10% of the total energy is transferred to thenext tropic level. because of that the length of foodchain is short in length.

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    Types of food chain.

    Grazing or predators food chain.

    Parasitic food chain Saprophytic or detritus food chain.

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    Grazing or predators food chain

    This food chain starts from the green plants

    herbivores primary consumer and ends withthe carnivore (secondary and tertiary c.)


    Lizard Hawk

    Grass hopper

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    Grazing or predators food chain

    The total energy assimilated by the greenplants is subjected to three importantprocess :-

    It may oxidized in respiration.

    It may die and decay.

    It may be eaten by herbivore.

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    Grazing or predators food chain

    Thus the grazing food chain is more effectiveor efficient as most of the primary energy ispassed on through the different tropic levelsand only the small fraction goes to thedecomposers.

    The ecosystem having this type of food chainis directly dependent on solar radiations.

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    Parasitic food chain

    This food chain starts from herbivores butfood energy is passes from larger organismsto smaller organisms without killing them.

    Larger consider host organisms. And smallerconsider the parasite which fulfill their

    requirement from host organisms.Grass

    Fungi / bacteria


    Lice's, bugs

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    Saprophytic or detritus food chain

    In this food chain the dead organic matters ororganic waste ( metabolic waste andextrudates) of ecosystem go to the microbesand finally detritus feeding organisms knownas detrivore . This type of food chain is less

    efficient as the major portion of energy in theecosystem without being properly utilized.

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    Saprophytic or detritus food chain

    In another words we can say that this type offood chain is starts from dead organicmatters acted upon by decomposers, in turnare eaten by detrivores which are furthereaten by decomposers, which in turn are

    eaten by detrivores which are further eatenby consumers.

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    Saprophytic or detritus food chain

    Ecosystem having this type of food chain arenot directly depends on the solar radiations.Most common type food chain is :

    Freshly fallen litterin lakes

    Decomposers fish

    Game fishDetrivoresSaprobes

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    Carrying Capacity

    Ecosystem has limits in terms of various population itcan support. Every organisms has sustain need that

    the community must provided in terms in order for itssurvival. however if any population get too large thanit become overloaded to the ecosystem and it cannotmeet its needs; just as human population in any

    particular area is overloaded than the carryingcapacity of that environment get exhausted it leadingto adverse effects.

    The same concept is applicable to air and waterkinds of ecosystem.

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    Limiting Factor

    Organisms depend upon their existence in acomplex set of factors. Any factor that it is in short

    supply or excess supply is the limiting factor. Factorsuch as temperature, water and light in greateramount that required can inhibit organismsdependent. The organisms with a wide range of

    tolerance for essential factors are likely to be moresuccessful and widely distributed while others arenot so,

    Most important type of limiting factors are thosewhich are critical to the development of organisms,

    o ulation and communit .

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    Limiting Factor

    Focusing on these factor gives a better chance ofpredicting the environmental of proposed

    environmental alterations.

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    The air, water, land are the habitats these are alsocalled as aerial, aquatic and terrestrial each factor

    play a vital role in controlling the environment andmaintaining the balance between earth andatmosphere.

    habitat keep on changing either through natural

    calamities like cyclones, trough and humaninterventions clearing of forest ,increasing pollutionetc. this changes causes destruction of animals andplant life. After the disturbance has stopped inhabitat, plant and animal life start establishing there.

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    Biological Clock It is the system which control the rhythms in living

    organisms including humans by measuring time

    through an internal mechanisms (internal clock) Eg. Migration of the bird from the cold region

    (Siberia) to the hot region is controlled by thebiological clock.

    In the human beings, the enzymes called melatonin

    secreted by pineal gland situated in the brainregulates the internal clock which declare thehunger, thirst, fever etc.

    This is important to understand the change inenvironment or external conditions if it is not so thenit affects the organisms existence or behavior.

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    Industrial Ecology and

    Recycling Industrial.

    The word ecology is the Greek word oikoswhich means the house.

    It is the study of organisms in various habitat.

    It is the study of natures and its functions.

    It is the study of interaction between

    The individual organisms. Population (same species)

    Community (no. of populations)

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    Industrial Ecology

    It is the process of developing industrialproduction methods which should haveconsiderably less impact on the environment.

    Two experts Froech and Gallopoulasobserved that taking lesson from the natural

    ecosystem it is possible to develop an ecofriendly production method which is verymuch necessary in the present scenario.

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    Industrial Ecology

    The usual production method prevalent is asgiven in the diagram.





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    Industrial Ecology

    Above integrated model is called industrialecosystem which would function as analogues to

    biological ecosystem. In fact, an ideal industrial ecosystem may never be

    attained in practice. But both the manufacturers andconsumers must change their practices to approachit more closely to biological ecosystem industrial

    ecology is based on Minimization of raw material useless waste

    production & optimization of energy.

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    Industrial Ecology and recycling


    Examples:- The slag produced by the steel plant was dumped in

    a separate area covering a large spaceunnecessarily. The TATA steel dump their slug near the bank of

    Swarnrekha river while crossing the mango bridge. The recent practice by the Bokaro Steel plant is to

    have a slug granulation plant where the Hot slug isused for making small granules by spraying coldwater on it. These granules of slug are used in acement industries.

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    Industrial Ecology and recycling


    Fly ash deposit of thermal power stations is used formaking carbon bricks by using technology. These

    bricks are used for construction purpose. The close loop manufacturing system which is

    operational aspect of industrial ecology mustadopted for sustainability.

    Industrial ecology is focuses on the role of industry inreducing environmental impact & the source burdenthrough the life cycle of the product starting fromexcavation of raw materials, use of the product &management of wastes.

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    Industrial Ecology and recycling


    Industrial ecology is a system that integratesprofitability with social and environmental

    responsibility. The worlds largest carpet manufacturing company

    like interface claims that the selenium used by themfor manufacturing carpets and other flooring material

    are very easily to clean & fungus do not grow onselenium used by them for manufacturing and othermanufacturing carpets and other flooring materialare very easy to clean &maintain fungus free unlikethe ordinary one. It also helps to reduce the land fillwasta e.

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    Industrial Ecology and recycling


    Interface as an exemplary venture, has recentlystarted a factory without using fossil fuels for energy

    because the factory is run by the solar powerenergy.

    DuPont gets the most of the polyester film book fromthe customers after use and recycle it into new films.

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    Industrial ecology not only conserves the resources,prevents damage to their environment but also is a

    successful business strategy.conservation, recycling & preventing

    environmental damage are the important factor tomaintain the balance in the ecosystem.

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    Environmental management system



    1st environmental standard was formulated as a

    British Standard (BS-7750) for environmentalstandard system.

    BS subsequently withdraw when ISO14000 wasrecognized as an European Standard by European

    Committee for Standardization. ISO was originally established by a group of nations

    to facilitates international trade.

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    Environmental management system


    ISO series was approved by European Commissionthrough recommendation of CEN (Committee

    European De Normalization) which is standardizedbody of European Union.

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    Environmental management system


    What is ISO14000?

    Many companies are now familiar with the quality systemstandards ISO9000 series of international standards.

    The ISO14000 series of international standards have beendeveloped for integrating environmental aspects (thoseelements of an organizational activities that can interact withthe environment ) into operation and product standards.

    The international committee CEN finalized the ISO14001standards for environmental system in September 1996 insimilar manner as ISO9001.

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    Environmental management system


    ISO14001 requires implementation of an EMS thatcombines with the internationally recognized set of


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    ISO14001 specification and guidelines

    for EMI

    It formulates and defined environmental policy.

    Determining environmental aspects and impacts of

    products / activities and services to theenvironmental.

    Planning environmental objectives and measurabletargets .

    Implementation &operations of programs to meetobjective and targets.

    Checking and corrective action.

    Management review.

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    What does ISO14001 requires?

    ISO14001 is the quality mainly dealing with envtissues which affecting the nations and the world

    resources and living standards. ISO14000 has been impart a life cycle analysis

    approaches to give commitment by manufacturersfor various environmental and ecological parameter.

    Such as: Composition of material.

    Recycling and disposal practices.

    New methods for achieving environmental goal.

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    What does ISO14001 requires?

    There are the five components of ISO14001 theyare:-

    Environmental policy.



    Monitoring and evaluation.


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    Environmental policy.

    It must be sound reflecting the commitment ofmanagement in matters relating to environmental

    issues. It must be in documents form and signed by top

    authority and available to concerned employees andexternal parties.

    It should have the following characteristics:-

    Policy must be cleared about commitment forcontinued improvement of EMS.

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    Environmental policy.

    The policy must be realistic considering theconstraints and resources of the company including

    the organizations impact on the environment. The policy should be emphasize on life cycle

    analysis, resources conservation, waste reductionand product designing that leads to sustainabledevelopment.

    The policy should conform to the laws ,rules andregulation and must make the statement withregards to compliance.

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    The planning of EMS should be written formconsidering the process, resources, responsibility,

    skills, authority and coordination. The plan include environmental aspects and impact

    ,no matters if the same thing is reflected in policyalso.

    When the work involves the handling of hazardous

    materials or any other procedure requiring safetymeasures, it has to be carefully return in planneddocuments.

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    There is a need of commitment from all theemployees for successful implementation of EMS.

    There must be change in the mind setup and attitudeto introduce environmental culture in theorganizations instead of the old traditionalmanagement culture.

    The awareness regarding environmental problemsamongst the staff is necessary. Specialenvironmental training of the personal involved inEMS is required for the benefit of organization and

    its effective implementation.

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    For effective implementation of EMS in theorganization it is necessary to have proper

    management of humans, financial and naturalresources, motivation for action, clear and welldefined responsibilities, communication, operationalcontrol, proper documentation and records etc.

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    Monitoring and evaluation.

    A suitable mechanisms for measuring performanceand evaluation of EMS is necessary and it requires a

    process, which must be an ongoing process toidentify environmental performance indicator that areverifiable.

    For regular monitoring, the organization must

    established a system and a procedure forcompliance and conformance with laws rules andregulations.

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    Monitoring and evaluation.

    Periodic audit of EMS for conformance to allabove regulations are conducted by internal

    auditors who are trained and assigned for thejob.

    When the internal audit is found satisfactory,

    the external qualified auditors are called forfinal audit and award of certifications.

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    A continue improvement of environmentalperformance is done at review stage. Review is

    highly necessary as it under takes an in-depth of allthe issues of environmental concern. the followingissues are discuss in the process of review.

    Sustainability of environmental policy.

    Audit report recommendations. New regulations if any.

    Public awareness and pressure.

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    Who are the organizations for adopting


    It is applicable to any organizations of any size thatis interested to maintain and implements EMS .

    Be sure for conforming stated environmental policy. Obtain certification /registrations of EMS.

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    Certification bodies The certification body are accredited by an

    accreditation body setup by the government of eachcountry.

    The accreditation body follow the strict norms andcontrols the activities of certification body. For the new company willing to enroll for

    certifications, the following aspects are checked bythe certification body:-

    The company has EMS, which is operational at leastfor three months. Possibility of internal auditing in the company. Availability of trained staff. Maintaining of documents. Review of mana ement has conducted.

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    What is the benefits of being registered

    to ISO14000?

    Some of the benefits of implementing anenvironmental management system (EMS) in

    accordance with the ISO14000 standards include; Identifying areas for reduction in energy and other

    resources consumption and their associated cost.

    Reducing environmental liabilities and risks.

    Helping to maintain consistent compliance with legalregulatory requirements.

    Potentially faster permitting process with stateagencies.

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    What is the benefits of being registered

    to ISO14000?

    Benefiting from regulatory initiatives that rewardscompanies, showing environmental leadershipthrough certified compliance with environmental

    excellence. Preventing pollution and reducing wastages, both of

    which reduce cost. Responding in a positive fashion to pressure from a

    customer and shareholders. Improving community goodwill. Profiting in the market for green product . Generally achieving a market advantages.

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    What is the benefits of being registered

    to ISO14000?

    Lower insurance cost by demonstrating proofof good management before pollution

    incident coverage is issued.

    Demonstrating commitment to high quality.

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    Other standards in ISO14000 series.

    ISO 14000:- general guidelines on principles ofEMS.

    ISO14001:-specification and guidance for EMS ISO14010:- general principles of auditing.

    ISO14020:- qualifications for auditors.

    ISO1421:- self declarations environmental claims.

    ISO1431:- guidelines for environmental performanceevaluation.

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    Other standards in ISO14000 series

    ISO14040:- life cycle assessment.

    ISO14050:- terms and definitions.

    ISO14060:- guide for inclusion for environmentalaspects in product standards.

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