Origem da internet no Brasil

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Transcript of Origem da internet no Brasil

  • 1. TECNOLOGIA EM REDES DECOMPUTADORES ATIVIDADE COMPLEMENTARINGLSINSTRUMENTALPROF. GENION BEZERRA DACOSTA

2. Equipe Jos Carlos da Rocha Ximenes Francisco Ederson de Oliveira Fagner Mota Barros Jlio Cesar Tavares Silvestre Antnio Leandro Diniz da Silva Matheus Mendes Rodrigues Ricardo de Moura Alves Antnio Manoel Silva de Queiroz Antnio Leandro Martins Candido Antnio Gleydson Monteiro Paz Romrio Brito de Azevedo 3. I n ear l y 1991 Br azi l began r ecei vi ngt he f i r st dat a t r ansf er r ed vi a t he I nt er net .Lear n m e about how i t cam about and how t he or ei nt er net w at t hat t i mase! 4. I f you w e bor n af t er 1994, bel i eve m t her eere:w as a t i m w e hen w had no i nt er net . O r at her , t heeri nt er net up t her e, but access t o i t was r est r i ct ed t om l i t ar y per sonnel and r esear cher s. W se, begi nni ng i niort he w l dw de net w k of com er s ser ved pr i m i l y t o or i orputarexchange em l s si nce t he w pages had not been i nvent ed.ai eb 5. I n such a net w k w devel oped i n an academ corasienvi r onm , but w t h t he f undi ng of a m l i t ar y body enti ispeci al l y bui l t f or t hi s pur pose i n 1958: t he AdvancedR esear ch Pr oj ect s Agency (ARPA), w ch whias di r ect l yl i nked t o t he D epar t ment of D ense.efThe f i r st demonst r at i on of t he AR ET, w ch PAN hiw consi der t o be t he m her of t he I nt er net , hel d i ne otAugust 5, 1968. O t he i nt er net you can f i nd m napsshow ng t he poi nt s connect ed by t he AR ET. I niPAND ecember 1969, f or exam e, t he net w k wpl or as com i sedprof onl y f our poi nt s. Ver y di f f er ent f r om t he vi si on w ehave i n M ch 1977, war hen dozens of host s ar ei nt er connect ed. 6. W t h t he passage of t i m and gr ow h of t he ie tAR ET, t he net w k began t o be used al so f or PAN oruni ver si t i es and, i n t he 80s, adopt ed t he TC / I PPpr ot ocol cur r ent l y i n use on t he i nt er net as st andar dt echnol ogy f or com uni cat i on.mCoupl ed w t h t he popul ar i zat i on of per sonalicom er (PC and TC / I P, anot her "char act er " t hat put) Phel ped t o conver ge al l of t hese t echnol ogi es f or t hecr eat i on of t he I nt er net was t he NSFnet , a net w k orcr eat ed by t he N i onal Sci ence Foundat i on i n or der t o ati nt er connect ot her net w ks.or 7. What made possi bl e t he advent of t he I nt er net i nBr azi l w as anot her pr edecessor of t he net w k: BI TN orET, anet w k of uni ver si t i es f ounded i n 1981 and l i nki ng t he orC t y U ver si t y of N Yor k (C N t o Yal e U ver si t y i n ini ew U Y) niConnect i cut . On Brazilian soil, the Bitnet connected the Foundationfor Research Support of So Paul o (FAPESP) t o t he Fer m l abiphysi cs l abor at or y speci al i zi ng i n t he st udy of at om c ipar t i cl es, w ch w i n I l l i noi s, Uhias SA.FER I LAB M 8. I n 1990 he was cr eat ed a N i onal Ratesear chN w k (R P), t he M ni st r y ofet orNiSci ence andTechnol ogy, i n or der t o depl oy an i nf r ast r uct ur ew t h nat i onal cover age f or i nt er net ser vi ces. Andisi nce t he i nt er net i s popul ar i zava bet ween t heacadem c com uni t y of t he U t ed St at es, Fer m l abi m niial so deci ded t o adopt t he new t echnol ogy. H ever ,oww t hout abandoni ng t he use of BI TNiET. Ther ef or e,over t i m t he connect i on bet w eeen FAPESP andFer m l ab t ur ned out t he onl y exi t r out e dat a f r omiBr azi l t o t he w l d and t he m n connect i on t o t he oraii nt er net t upi ni qui m i n ear l y 1991. The Foundat i onw al so r esponsi bl e f or adm ni st er i ng t he dom ni o.as ii"Br " and t he di st r i but i on of I Ps t o Br azi l . 9. Anot her novel t y w i n t he nat i onal net w kasorexpansi on w t hi n t he count r y. A new connect i onii nt er connect ed FAPESP N i onal at Labor at or yforScientific Computing (LNCC), in Rio de Janeiro. Later,Internet connections were also extended to other institutionsin So Paul o, R o de Janei r o, R o G ande do Sul and i irM nas G ai s. These connect i ons w e usi ng pr i vat eiererl i nes t hat oper at ed i n t he r ange 2400 t o 9600bi t s per second (bps). The connect i on i t sel f bet w een FAPESP andoper at ed at Fer m l ab Sept emiber 4800 bps t o 1990,w hen i t cam t o t r avel on dat a at 9600 bps. Thi seval ue i s much l ow t han w have t oday i n our homerees,w t h connect i ons up t o 10 mi egabi t s per second (Mbps),f or exam e. Today, t he cur r ent connect i on f r om plFAPESP oper at es i n t he r ange of 10 G gabi t s perisecond (Gbps). 10. I n 1992 t he R P had al r eady i m em ed a N pl entnat i onw de net w k, connect i ng 11 st at e capi t al s i ort hr ough a m esh of 9600 bps. Si nce t he connect i onsbet w een Br asi l i a, R o de Janei r o, Sao Paul o andiPor t o Al egr e had l i nks t o 64,000 bps.Anot her novel t y i n t he sam year w eas t heem gence of or gani zat i ons t hat l ook and act erl ocal l y, st at ew de. The R ver N w k, f or exam e,i iet orplconnect ed school s i n R o de Janei r o usi ng l i nks ofi64,000 bps. Lat er t he i nst i t ut i on was cal l ed t heC i f or ni aalEducat i on and Resear chFeder at i onN w k) at t he C put er C er of San D ego, U t edet or omentiniSt at es.In So Paulo emerged Academic Network atSo Paulo (ANSP), which has linked the University ofSo Paul o (U SP), St at e U ver si t y of C pi nas ni am(U I C P), U ver si dade Est adual Paul i st a (U ESP),N AMniNand I PT, I nst i t ut e of Technol ogi cal Resear ch St at eof Sao Paul o. 11. D i ng t hi s per i od t he connect i on l i nki ng t he urFer m l ab FAPESP al so w an upgr ade, f r om t r avel on t he iondat a at 64 ki l obi t s per second (Kbps, 64000 bps). I naddi t i on, st at e net w ks have al so em ged i n M nasorer iG ai s, Per nam erbuco, R o G ande do Sul and t he Feder ali rD st r i ct . iThei nt er netst ar t s get t i ngevenm e ori nt er est i ng w t h t he em gence of t he W l d W de W ier or ieb(W W i n 1990. The per son r esponsi bl e f or w i t i ng t he W)rH TTP pr ot ocol t hat enabl es t he t r ansf er of w pages t oebbr ow s,serwasTi m hyotBer ner s-Lee, who r ecent l ypar t i ci pat ed as a speaker at C pus Par t y Br azi l .am 12. I n 1993 r esear cher s at t he U ver si t y of niI l l i noi s U bana-C pai gn cr eat ed Mr hamosai c, t he f i r stbr ow ser t o w k on W ndowor is, w ch al so f avor ed ahigr eat er popul ar i t y of t he web.I n 1994, t he I nt er net f i nal l y l eaves t heacadem c ni che and begi ns t o be m ket ed t o t he iargener al publ i c. I n Br azi l , Em at el l aunches I nt er net brSer vi ceC m ci al ,om er exper i m al l y ent and w thii nt er nat i onal connect i on of 256 Kbps. Fi ve t housanduser s w e chosen t o t est t he ser vi ce. er 13. In M ay 1995 t he ser vi ce began t ooper at e i n a def i ni t i ve way and t o avoi d t hest at e monopol y of I nt er net i n Br azi l , t heM ni st r y of C m cat i ons has mi om uni ade publ i c i t sposi t i on i n f avor of com er ci al expl oi t at i on of mt he gl obal net w k i n t he count r y.orThe i nt er net has becom t he cover ofem agazi nes and even t he subj ect of t he novel , i si ncr easi ngl y popul ar , gr ow ng so am ng. I ni azi1996 w as l aunched m or por t al s and I SPsajconnect i on t o t he net w k i n Br azi l and i nor1998, t he count r y al r eady occupi ed t he 19t hpl ace i n num ber of host s i n t he w l d and l ed ort he podi um i n Sout h Am i ca i n t he Am i can erer.S.cont i nent w second onl y t o t he St at es U and asC anada. 14. Consol i dat ed was t he use of I nt er net i n Br azi l .N l y t en year s l at er , i n 2007, Br azi l m earoved about 114bi l l i on dol l ar s i n com er ce and had a base of 40 m l l i onm icom er s i n t he count r y. Accor di ng t o I bope / N R i ngs, putet atw had about 18 m l l i on r esi dent i al I nt er net user s. e i Accor di ng t o Ibope NetRatings, we are now 79.9million Internet users tupiniquins, Brazil is the 5th most wiredcountry. According to Fecomrcio-R psos, t he per cent age ofJ/IBrazilians connected to the Internet increased from 27% to 48%between 2007 and 2011. The main site access is the Internetcaf (31%), f ol l owed by hom (27%) and t he hom ofeer el at i ves of f r i ends, w t h 25% (Apr i l 2010). Br azi l i sit he 5t h count r y w t h t he l ar gest numi ber of I nt er netconnect i ons.