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    CeramicArtsHandbookSeries

    IMAGE & DESIGNTRANSFER

    TECHNIQUESEdited by Paul Andrew Wandless

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    iv

    The American Ceramic Society600 N. Cleveland Ave., Suite 210Westerville, OH 43082

    © 2015 by The American Ceramic Society, All rights reserved.

    ISBN: 978-1-57498-345-6 (Paperback)

    ISBN: 978-1-57498-580-1 (PDF)

    No part of this book may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form orby any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording or otherwise, withoutwritten permission from the publisher, except by a reviewer, who may quote brief passages in review.

    Authorization to photocopy for internal or personal use beyond the limits of Sections 107 and 108

    of the U.S. Copyright Law is granted by The American Ceramic Society, provided that the appropriatefee is paid directly to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923U.S.A., www.copyright.com. Prior to photocopying items for educational classroom use, pleasecontact Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. This consent does not extend to copyright items for generaldistribution or for advertising or promotional purposes or to republishing items in whole or in part inany work in any format. Requests for special photocopying permission and reprint requests should bedirected to Director, Publications, The American Ceramic Society, 600 N. Cleveland Ave., Westerville,Ohio 43082 USA.

    Every effort has been made to ensure that all the information in this book is accurate. Due to differingconditions, equipment, tools, and individual skills, the publisher cannot be responsible for anyinjuries, losses, and other damages that may result from the use of the information in this book. Finaldetermination of the suitability of any information, procedure or product for use contemplated byany user, and the manner of that use, is the sole responsibility of the user. This book is intended forinformational purposes only.

    The views, opinions and findings contained in this book are those of the author. The publishers,editors, reviewers and author assume no responsibility or liability for errors or any consequences arisingfrom the use of the information contained herein. Registered names and trademarks, etc., used in thispublication, even without specific indication thereof, are not to be considered unprotected by the law.Mention of trade names of commercial products does not constitute endorsement or recommendationfor use by the publishers, editors or authors.

    The Publisher advises the reader that certain decal applications onto glossy substrates may be subjectto Patent No: US 7,622,237 B2.

    Publisher: Charles Spahr, Executive Director, The American Ceramic Society

    Managing Director: Sherman Hall

    Series Editor: Bill Jones

    Editor: Paul Andrew Wandless

    Graphic Production: Pamela S. Woodworth

    Series Design: Melissa Bury

    Cover Image: Swirls and Stripes, 101 / 4 in. (26 cm) in diameter, earthenware, slip, underglaze, glaze,laser-toner decals, commercial decals, and gold luster, by Jason Bige Burnett.

    Frontispiece: Wheel-thrown and altered platter with layers of pattern created using both monoprintingand toner-resist techniques, by Martina Lantin.

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    1  Image Transfer & ApplicationNewsprint Slip Transfers 1 

     Jason Bige Burnett 

    Ink Transfers for Greenware 6 Doug Gray 

    Underglaze Transfer Paper 11  Jessica Knapp

    Projecting Patterns 13 Shana Salaff 

    Monoprinting and Toner-Resist Transfers 16  Martina Lantin

    Photolithography Transfers 21 Kristina Bogdanov 

    Graphite Transfers 26 

     Judith Berk King Rice Paper Transfers 32 

    Kate Missett 

    2  DecalsNo-Fire Decals 35 

    Brendan Tang 

    How to Make Laser Toner Decals 39 Frank Gaydos

    Using Laser Toner Decals 41  Justin Rothshank

    Designing Custom Full-Color Decals 46 Linda Gates

    Masked Patterns and Laser Toner Decals 50  Andrew Gilliatt 

    Acrylic Medium Images 53  Juan Granados

    Table of Contents

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    vi

    3  Relief, Etching & StampingPrinting and Embossing with Linocuts 55 

    Paul Andrew Wandless

    Reliefs with Photosensitive Polymer Plates 62 Paul Andrew Wandless

    Etching a Glazed Surface 69  Ann Ruel 

    Light Sensitive Emulsion 71  Jessica Knapp

    Underglaze Stamp Pads 74 Holly Goring 

    4  Stencils & MaskingUsing Single-Color Stencils 75 

    Kip O’Krongly 

    Multi-Color Stencil Decoration 80 Paul Andrew Wandless

    Friskets 85 

    Frank James Fisher 

    Die-Cut Stencils 89 Paul Barchilon

    Using Stencils 94 Hannah Lore Hombordy 

    Dimensional Stencils 99  Ann Ruel 

    Wax Resist Inlay 102 Sumi von Dassow

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    v

    5  ScreeningBuilding a Silkscreen 105 

    Paul Andrew Wandless

    Using Photocopy Film Negatives 111 Paul Andrew Wandless

    Ultraviolet Light-Sensitive Emulsion Screens 114 Paul Andrew Wandless

    Silkscreen Printing on Wet Clay 117 Brad Menninga

    Thermal Screen Printing 121  Alice Drew

    Screening Multi-Color Images on Clay 127 Paul Andrew Wandless

    Image Transfer for Volumetric Forms 132 Forrest Lesch-Middelton

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    viii

    Clay has a history of being combined with, and included in, other creative practices, such as printmaking,

    drawing and photography. Clay and print have an especially unique relationship due to their natural com-

    patibility. Utilizing printmaking techniques with underglaze, slip, and glaze to address clay surfaces allows

    one to take advantage of the best of both mediums. Image transfer onto clay is a great way to explore

    and experiment with different mediums and see what exciting possibilities can be visually incorporated

    in your clay work. Having the ability to transfer an image, design, or text gives you the ability to take full

    advantage of your creative ideas.

    Over the years, several informative articles have appeared in Ceramics Monthly  and Pottery Making Il-lustrated  addressing clay and image transfer. A wide variety of methods have been covered to address the

    surfaces of greenware, bisqueware and glazeware with printing and transfer techniques. This book is a

    collection of information curated from these past articles, along with a few new ones written specifically

    to be included in this book. Most of the processes covered are water-based and safe to use in your studio,

    which makes it user friendly for everyone to try. Along with process information, there are also tips and

    instructions on how to make some of the printing tools to help you customize your work even more.

    Appliqué and paper transfers are a great introduction to transferring images if you’re new to this way of

    working. All you need is newsprint and underglaze to get started. Patterns and designs can be created on

    newsprint with both underglaze and slip, then transferred to greenware to create new and dynamic sur-

    faces. This can be done on flat slabs for handbuilding purposes or directly onto the curved walls of vessels.

    Decals have been a popular choice for artists to add photographic images, designs and text to clay fordecades. A variety of decal options are covered, which address different visual effects that can be created

    on work. Non-fired decals are a great choice to add images, but not add another firing. Laser toner decals

    are a good choice for sepia-toned images that have a more subtle visual impact. Commercial decals, die-

    cut decals and layering decals to make a complex collage are more options to explore, if you’re interested

    in further personalization.

    Relief and embossing are image transfer techniques that allow imagery to be printed or impressed into

    clay. Relief in the forms of linocuts and photosensitive polymer plates are used to print and emboss on

    clay. Your ideas can be carved into linoleum and photographic images can be burned into photopoly-

    mer plates. For simpler ideas, rubber stamps can be used to create small reliefs to decorate greenware or

    bisqueware.

    Glaze etching and light sensitive emulsions can be used to work on glazed surfaces and bisqueware.Work that’s already glaze fired can have patterns and designs etched into the glaze surface. The matte,

    etched areas contrast nicely with the glossy, un-etched areas. Photographic images can be projected onto

    bisqueware that’s been coated with light sensitive emulsion. The emulsion hardens and leaves an image

    behind that can be fired. These two techniques produce unique results and are readily available as com-

    mon art supplies.

    While stencils seem like a fairly simple tool, they can be used to make very complex images. They can be

    used on greenware, bisqueware and glazeware. You can go from cutting silhouettes for simple, single-color

    images, to combining multiple stencils to create a complex, multi-color image. If hand-cut stencils are not

    Preface

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    for you, you can have them commercially made. Information to have die-cut stencils is covered so you’ll

    know how to prepare the image files for best results. Friskets are another variation of masking technique

     you can employ directly to the surface of your work.

    Screen printing is the natural evolution of stencils to use images with greater detail. This certainly is one

    of the most widespread and popular image transfer technique used by artists. Instructions of how to build

     your own screen for printing, will allow you to build custom screens that are best suited for your ideas.

    All you will need are common hand tools and a few supplies from an art store. Photocopy film negatives

    are a cost-effective way to make custom images to burn into screens using diazo-sensitive emulsion. Thissaves the trouble of making transparencies or darkroom film negatives. If you want to work without a

    darkroom to burn screens, UV sensitive emulsion screens are covered. The unmounted screens give you

    the option to print on flat or curved surface and can be used on greenware, bisqueware and glazeware. A

    variety of screening techniques are introduced to screen single color images, multi-color images and even

    screening on vessel forms.

    This collection of clay and printmaking techniques has something for everyone, regardless of your level

    of experience. There are several easy-to-follow processes for someone just wanting to experiment with

    clay and printing for the first time. There are also several processes for someone looking to expand their

    current skill set or learn new variations for screens, relief, paper transfers and decals. Then there are some

    technical articles for those who like to make their own tools and equipment. Regardless of where you fall

    in this spectrum, there will be something to try and hopefully make that image, pattern or design youalways wanted to, but weren’t quite sure how to do.

    Paul Andrew Wandless

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    1

    Image Transfer & Application

    My childhood interest in television cartoons in-

    fluenced my current ceramic forms and surfaces.The bright colors, graphic patterns, and illustra-

    tive qualities recapture and celebrate my fascina-

    tion with whimsical domestic representation. I’m

    inspired by the stylized hand-drawn utilitarian

    objects like a coffee mug in a cartoon character’s

    hand or the mixing bowl displayed on the shelf in

    their kitchen.

    The combination of commercial stained slips

    and newsprint is a paper transfer process. By ap-

    plying slips saturated with bold colors onto news-

    print, then transferring the drawn images to aslipped clay object, I can achieve an animated

    surface. Playtime doesn’t end there; I continue by

    introducing stamps, stains, and stickers to further

    enhance the ceramic surface until the desired ef-

    fect is fully achieved.

    Creating Newsprint TransfersThis newspaper transfer process mirrors the tra-

    ditional monoprint process. Instead of drawing

    on a metal plate and transferring the image to

    paper, I’m drawing on newspaper then transfer-ring directly to clay. As with all monoprints, keep

    in mind that the image you create will be reversed.

    Text must be backwards and layers of color must

    be applied foreground to background (figure 1).

    Whether it be stripes, shapes, illustrations, or a

    color field, start with an idea of how you would

    like to approach the surfaces of your piece before

     you start.

    Apply your pattern or drawing to strips or

    blocks of newsprint, varying the colors of slip us-

    ing brushes, slip trailers, and sponge stamps. Use

    caution as the paper causes the slip to dry; and

    if it dries too much, it may chip off. Use a spray

    bottle to keep the image damp but don’t spray too

    much water as it could puddle and smear the slip.

    Regular newspaper works well but I prefer using

    Strathmore brand Newsprint Paper available at

    any art supply store. The thickness and tooth of

    this paper is durable and tough enough to hold

    and transfer slip.

    NEWSPRINT SLIP TRANSFERSby Jason Bige Burnett

    Too Much Television, uses newsprint and slip decoration combined with incised decoration, decals, luster, and glaze,

    creating dimensional surfaces that also pop with color.

    Swirls and Stripes, 101 / 4 in. (26 cm) in diameter, earthenware, slip, underglaze,

    glaze, laser-toner decals, commercial decals, and gold luster.

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    Image & Design Transfer Techniques

    2

    decoration on the newsprint are both at leather

    hard, you are ready to print. There is a narrow

    window of time here where the surface of your

    piece and the newspaper are perfect for applica-

    tion. If one or the other is too wet when applied,

    the result could be sloppy and undesirable. If the

    image and object are too dry, then this affects the

    quality of adhesion. When the slip on the object issoft but not tacky and all the slip on the paper has

    lost its sheen, you’re ready to transfer the image.

    Carefully pick up your piece of newsprint and

    slowly bring it toward the object. You’ll see the im-

    age through the newsprint and that assists with

    placement. Once any part of the newsprint trans-

    fer touches the object, gently press the rest of the

    newsprint onto the surface (figure 3). Note that

    air pockets result on curved surfaces. These are

    Slip it and Stick itAfter you’ve completed the newsprint image, wait

    for the slip to become leather hard and then ap-

    ply a slip coat over the drawing. Lightly dab the

    first coat of slip on (figure 2), wait for this coat

    to become leather hard and then brush on a sec-

    ond coat. A hair dryer assists in getting the slipped

    newsprint to leather-hard. If the slip has a glossysheen then it’s too wet to continue.

    The slip application works best on leather-hard

    clay. Using a hake brush, apply a moderate coat of

    slip to the surface. This layer of slip shouldn’t be

    too thin or too thick and it should be the consis-

    tency of heavy whipping cream. This slip coat cre-

    ates a tactile surface perfect for pressing newsprint

    into and absorbs transferred slip and imagery well.

    When the slip-coated clay piece and the slip

    1. Create patterns with colored slips. Paint the fore-

    ground layer first and the background last.

    2. When leather-hard, blot and brush on the back-

    ground slip, which also serves as a transfer coat.

    4. When the slip has had time to absorb and the news-

    print has lost a lot of its moisture, slowly peel it away.

    3. Gently apply the newsprint to the piece. Use a soft

    rib to ensure contact and pierce any trapped air.

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    Image Transfer & Application

    3

    addressed later. Gently press the transfer onto the

    surface with your hands, working over the general

    area. The trapped air pockets can be removed by

    piercing them with a needle tool or a small X-Acto

    blade. If the air pockets are not taken care of, they

    can cause defects or misprinting of the transfer.

    Now that the newsprint has been applied to the

    object, there’s a layer of moisture trapped betweenthe object and the paper. Within the first minute or

    two the clay object begins absorbing that moisture.

    Using a soft rib, press the newsprint down, ap-

    plying more pressure than before. Between thirty

    seconds and two minutes is about the time when

     you’ll notice the newsprint drying out again. Take

    a slightly harder rib and, with more force than

    before, rub the newsprint one last time into the

    clay. Rubbing too hard could smudge the slip un-

    6. Brush additional slip coats of any colors you wish

    over both the first layer and the damp newsprint strips.

    8. After allowing the slip to absorb into the surface

    for a minute or two, peel away the newsprint again to

    reveal the varied, textured surfaces.

    5. Apply damp newsprint strips and press down all edges

    to prevent the second slip coat from seeping underneath.

    7. Create more of a tactile surface by applying another

    layer of thick slip onto a fresh piece of newsprint and

    wrapping it around the object.

    derneath or tear through the paper. Practice and

    experience with this method is the best way to find

     your limits.

    Grab a corner or take the edge of the newsprint

    and slowly begin to peel away (figure 4). It’s im-

    portant to do this slowly so you’ll catch the spots

    that did not adhere to the surface. Just place it

    back down gently and massage the spot downinto the surface with the medium-soft rib. Repeat

    if necessary. Not addressing the spots creates po-

    tential reservoirs for stain and glazes later. Now

    that your image is transferred, handle the piece

    carefully. Applying slip onto leather-hard clay will

    make the clay soft and malleable again. I suggest

    waiting until your piece becomes firm and the slip

    isn’t sticky to the touch before applying anything

    else to the surface.

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    Image & Design Transfer Techniques

    4

    Additional DecorationsIf you want a contrasting decoration in an adjoin-

    ing area, apply another coat of slip to the leath-

    er-hard clay. This time, try cutting out stripes or

    shapes of plain newsprint, spritz with water un-

    til slightly damp, and lay them over the slip coatto act as a stencil resist (figure 5). Brush over the

    piece with another slip, again any color works, and

    let sit until the slip firms up (figure 6).

    On top of the slip and strip layer, I also like creat-

    ing built up textures of slip. Brush a moderate coat

    of slip onto a wide strip of newsprint and vary the

    thickness of application. Once leather hard, place

    the wide strip over the slip-coated object with the

    newsprint stripes still in place (figure 7). Be more

    relaxed with this and just gently pat down the strip.

    Give it a variation of rubs and pressings, then peel

    away and notice the loose quality and nature of the

    slipped surface (figure 8). Any sharp edges of slip

    should be tapped down or pressed in with your fin-

    gers. After this surface has been bisqued, stains and

    washes enhance the loose look, suggesting surfaces

    such as torn wallpaper or chipped paint.

    Next, carefully peel the stripes away. If locating

    the paper and peeling it away is difficult, lightly heat

    the surface with a blow dryer until the slip above

    the newsprint becomes noticeably different in color

    and dryness. Now the paper can be removed with

    the aid of a needle tool or an X-Acto blade.

    10. Take advantage of the piece being leather hard and

    carve away some larger areas of the slip, revealing thecontrasting color of the clay.

    12. Apply soda ash wash, wax resist, and glazes to

    desired surfaces. This is the time to plan for a final layer

    of decals and lusters.

    9. Mark the surface with stamps, rollers and carving

    tools, creating new patterns and echoing the lines ofthe form or of the colored bands.

    11. After the work has been bisqued, apply underglaze

    or stain over the object and wipe away to accentuate

    the process marks.

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    Image Transfer & Application

    5

    Stamp It OutSince the object is still leather hard after the news-

    print and resist techniques, more adornment may

    be applied. You can create additional marks using

    stamps, etched lines, and texture rollers (figure 9).

    Larger areas of slip can also be carved away and

    create more surface depth (figure 10).

    Layering After the BisqueStaining the work with an underglaze creates more

    depth and enhances the process marks and inden-

    tations previously made on the surface. Coat the

    entire piece with one or two layers of underglaze, let

    dry, and sponge it away from the high points leav-

    ing it in the recesses (figure 11). I use a black un-

    derglaze to give my work a distressed look. Let the

    underglaze dry prior to applying wash and glazes.

    Since the whole object will not be covered in

    glaze, some areas will remain matte. If the matte

    surfaces remain untreated, they come out looking

    chalky and dry. To prevent this, apply a soda ash

    Circus Stars and Stripes, 7

    inches in height, earth-

    enware, slip, underglaze,

    glaze, iron-toner decals,

    and gold luster.

    wash over the piece in two generous brush coats.To make the soda ash wash, combine 57 grams of

    soda ash to 1 cup of heated water and stir to dis-

    solve the ingredients. Allow the piece to dry again.

    The soda ash wash will cause the matte surfaces to

    retain a moist and saturated look. I fire the stains,

    glazes, and soda ash wash together to cone 05–04,

    and then do a second firing of the iron toner decals

    (see page 39) to cone 08. Finally, I do a third firing

    of gold luster and commercial decals together to

    cone 017. I’ve fired the soda ash wash up to cone 2

    but not past that.I use a variety of shop-made and commercial

    glazes. For many, glazing is the last and final step,

    but I find glaze firing is only an intermediate step

    when pushing surfaces even further. When glazing,

    try setting up areas for decals and lusters by selec-

    tively applying the glaze (figure 12). Remember,

    decals and lusters reflect the surface below them

    and work best when applied to a shiny surface.

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    75

    Stencils & MaskingUSING SINGLE-COLOR STENCILSby Kip O'Krongly

    My work in clay is inti-

    mately connected to the

    exploration of layers. Thephysical layers built up through

    ceramic processes allude to the more ab-

    stract layers of issues currently occupying my

    pots; the following leads you through my current

    process of handbuilding and decorating a platter

    using stencils.

    Making StencilsBefore I make a platter, I come up with a design

    and stencil for the imagery. Stencils can be as sim-

    ple or as complex as you like, but I find the detail

    that’s achievable an exciting aspect of the process.

    You can work from any drawing or photograph,

    but high contrast images are the most straight-

    forward to cut. Once you select an image, make

    a photocopy (don’t ruin your original!), and use

    a permanent marker to clearly delineate the areas

     you will include. All of the sections you intend to

    retain in the final stencil must be connected to the

    whole or they will drop out of the image.

    I cut stencils out of thin plastic tablecloth,

    which makes them reusable. Since these cut-

    outs often take more than four hours to create,

    I cut through as many layers as possible at one

    time to create multiple stencils. If you leave the

    tablecloth folded out of the package, you’ll cut

    through six layers of plastic and end up with six

    identical stencils.

    After choosing your imagery and determiningthe areas to be cut away, tape the photocopy to

    the still-folded plastic (figure 1). Using a fresh

    X-Acto blade and working on a self-healing mat,

    begin by cutting the interior sections of your

    stencil. Starting with interior cuts provides the

    most structure possible during cutting. Com-

    press delicate areas to prevent the layers of plastic

    below from shifting out of place (figure 2). Try to

    begin each cut from one end of a line, cut to the

    Corn Duster, 17 in.

    (43 cm) in diameter,

    handbuilt earthenware

    with hand-cut stencils, slip,

    sgraffito, underglaze, and terrasigillata. Single fired in oxida-

    tion to cone 04.

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    Image & Design Transfer Techniques

    76

    midpoint, then cut from the other end to meet

    in the middle. This method helps avoid inadver-

    tently slicing beyond joints. Have tweezers on

    hand to remove small areas as you cut, so you can

    see your progress.

    Once all interior segments are removed (figure

    3), carefully cut along the exterior image bor-

    der to release it from the surrounding plastic. If

     you’re careful, you can use the negative image as

    a stencil as well. For this particular project, I cut

    four stencils: One crop duster from a full-size

    copy of my original, one stencil of the dust using

    a second photocopy of the original, one stencil

    from a photocopy of my drawing reduced to 75

    percent of the original size, and one from a 50

    percent sized copy (plus a few canaries to add

    into the dust). Once all stencils are cut, you’re

    ready to build a form for surface application.

    Building a PlatterPlatters are an ideal vehicle for surface decora-

    tion. To form a platter, drape a ½-inch thick slab

    over a bisque mold (figure 4) and attach the foot

    immediately after draping. Once dried to firm

    leather hard, flip the platter and attach a coil rim

    (figure 5). I roll out or extrude a coil, then lay

    it in a spiral on a banding wheel. With the plat-ter on another banding wheel, I attach the coil,

    then slowly spin the platter’s banding wheel as I

    work so the coil always feeds to the rim at the

    same spot. Let the rim and platter set up togeth-

    er under plastic overnight. The following day,

    mask out the rim and foot with latex to protect

    from slip while decorating (figure 6). I use La-

    guna’s Goodrich Latex because it is water based

    (no stinky ammonia, and it can be thinned with

    4. Drape a ½-inch thick clay slab over a bisque hump

    mold. Trim the edge and immediately attach a foot ring.

    1. Tape a photocopy of the image to an unopened part

    of tablecloth. Retain black areas, cut away white areas.

    2. Cut interior sections first to keep the stencil strong.

    Compress delicate areas to keep plastic from shifting.

    3. The stencil with all interior sections removed prior to

    cutting the exterior.

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    Stencils & Masking

    77

    water). Applying latex allows freedom of gesture

    with slip decoration and gives a clean, crisp line

    when removed. Let the platter with latex set up

    under plastic another 24 hours prior to decorat-

    ing. This extra time under plastic makes for easi-

    er latex removal following surface work.

    Layering the Surface

    Plastic stencils adhere best to leather-hard clayso keep forms well wrapped prior to decorating.

    Once you have determined placement for the

    first layer of stencils (three crop dusters in this

    case), tack them down with a small brush dipped

    in clean water (figure 7). The beauty of using

    this thin plastic is the ability to see water spread

    under the stencil, which helps ensure edges seal

    to the clay. Use as little water as possible—just

    enough to make the clay surface tacky. If you use

    too much water, the stencil will “float” on the clay

    rather than stick.

    Following the lines of your cutout, gently work

    the stencil into the clay. If you’re decorating a

    curved form (concave in particular) your cutout

    may need to fold to accommodate the shape. En-

    courage folds that disrupt the image as little as

    possible and take extra care to ensure edges firm-ly adhere. Once the first layer of stencils is set and

    no wet areas remain on the clay, brush slip over

    the surface (figure 8). Apply with care so that if

    brush strokes show, they appear intentional and

    fit with the movement of the piece.

    After the slip sets to leather hard, use a very

    soft pencil to sketch out areas of sgraffito. A light

    spritz of water will erase pencil lines. I use a Kem-

    per K23 tool for most sgraffito decoration (figure

    8. After the base layer of stencils is secure, apply a layer

    of slip over the surface.

    5. After allowing the clay to set up overnight, attach a

    coil rim to the platter.

    6. Mask all areas that you want to remain bare with

    latex and let set for 24 hours under plastic.

    7. Tack the first stencil down with water once you’re

    satisfied with the placement.

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    Image & Design Transfer Techniques

    78

    9), but sometimes use an X-acto knife or pin tool

    for variation of line quality.

    With sgraffito complete (minus the corn tas-

    sels), use latex to mask out corn that will fall

    within the dust stencil (figure 10). This results in

    corn imagery that appears in the foreground and

    visually pops off the platter surface. Once the la-

    tex has set (10–20 minutes in this case), apply the

    dust stencil. Use extra care when adhering this

    stencil to avoid marring the slip below. With the

    dust stencil in place, apply slip or underglaze into

    the stencil area (figure 11). After the underglaze

    loses any of its sheen, add canary stencils using

    the above method of stencil application, filling

    them in with additional underglaze. Once set,

    gently remove each canary stencil with tweezers

    (figure 12).

    When the surface is back to leather hard, care-

    fully remove the latex masking the corn (figure

    13) along with all layers of stencils (figure 14).

    Note that if you remove stencils too early, the slip

    may run underneath. In contrast, if you wait too

    long, the edges may be ragged. Try to find a win-

    dow where slip is firmly set, but not yet dry. If

    slip has dried too far, mist with water to soften

    before removing stencils. If you find spots where

    slip has bled under your cutouts, use a sgraffito

    tool to scrape the clay body clean. Alternatively,

    use a small brush with water to “erase” any areas

    of unwanted slip. Once all stencils are removed,

    add final sgraffito details or any other cutouts to

    the surface (figure 15).

    I single fire my work to cone 04, so prior to

    removing latex from the rim, I coat the sur-

    9. Sgraffito areas of drawing into the surface. Note the

    crop duster stencil still under the slip.

    10. Mask out any areas of corn that fall within the dust

    stencil using latex.

    12. Apply the canary stencils and more underglaze, then

    remove the bird stencils.

    11. With the dust stencil set, brush underglaze into the

    unprotected space.

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    Stencils & Masking

    79

    face with glaze (figure 16). To apply glaze at the

    leather-hard stage, ensure that your glaze recipe

    has a healthy portion of clay so it shrinks along

    with your piece. If you have minimal clay in your

    glaze, it may be better to wait and spray the glaze

    on at the bone dry stage to single fire. With the

    glaze firm, remove latex from the foot and rim

    and let the platter dry slowly. If you’re working

    with earthenware, apply terra sigillata to any ar-

    eas of exposed clay at the bone dry stage to seal

    the surface and add a lovely satin sheen.

    Cleaning and Storing StencilsTo clean stencils after use, place on a smooth sur-

    face (a piece of Plexiglas works well) and spray

    liberally with water. As you spray the stencil, it

    relaxes and becomes easy to manipulate. Gently

    blot clean with a sponge. Once dry, the stencil

    will stick to the Plexiglas until next needed. Note

    that the more complicated your stencil, the more

    likely it is to twist up following use. To help with

    untangling, choose a plastic tablecloth that has a

    pattern on only one side. That way, you can easily

    identify which side is up and which is down as

     you clean and reshape your cutouts.

    Working with stencils provides the freedom

    to explore possibilities of repeating imagery in

    different combinations and on different forms.

    While there is an initial investment in creating a

    new cutout, once cut, there are many decorative

    possibilities. Since this process works at any fir-

    ing temperature and to range from simple shapes

    to intricate designs, I find this surface method a

    valuable and inspiring studio tool.

    16. If single firing, apply glaze prior to removing latex

    from the rim and foot.

    13. When the surface returns to leather hard, peel the

    protective latex coating off of the corn imagery.

    14. Next remove all layers of stencils and clean up any

    areas where the slip bled under using a sgraffito tool.

    15. Sgraffito in the corn tassels and any other details

    you would like to add.

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    114

    Screen printing ranks as one of the most popular

    printmaking techniques because it can be used to

    apply images to virtually any surface.

    Clay artists are always looking for simple op-

    tions to transfer complex images, designs, pat-

    terns, digital images and photography onto their

    ceramic pieces. While some image transfer tech-

    niques, such as decals, require chemicals and

    equipment, I’ve discovered a simple, commer-

    cially available screen that requires minimal ef-

    fort and items to create an image for printing.

    The product is called EZScreenprint Stencils

    (available at www.ezscreenprint.com) and it’s de-

    signed for use with simple black-and-white pho-

    tocopies and the sun. You can go from an idea

    to screening an image on clay in about an hour!

    How cool is that?

    EZScreenprint Stencils are screens pre-coated

    with ultraviolet (UV) light-sensitive emulsion. In-

    stead of needing an exposure unit to expose (burn)

    an image, you simply use the sun as your light

    source to expose (burn) the screen for 7 minutes.

    Its then soaked (developed) in tap water for about

    15 minutes. After the exposed areas have developed

    and set during the soaking, rinse the screen with

    water to wash away the unexposed emulsion and

    create an open, stencil version of your image. The

    final step is going back out into the sun for another

    20–30 minutes to harden the emulsion. Experiment

    with the test strips included in the kit to get the

    hang of exposing and setting the screen before us-

    ing a full sheet for your final image. Exposing times

    can vary based on the time of year and the strength

    of the sun for where you live.

    ScreeningULTRAVIOLET LIGHT-SENSITIVE EMULSION SCREENSby Paul Andrew Wandless

    Image on a hi-res

    screen by Chicago artist

    Tom Lucas, used toprint on clay.

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    Screening

    115

    Image, Paper and ScreenFor best results, the type of image and screen

    mesh size and must be suitable and compat-

    ible with each other. Though your image can be

    simple or complex, it must be black and white. It

    can be line art, an illustration, photograph, digi-

    tal image or halftone. Line-art images have few, if

    any, small details and consist more of bold lines

    and shapes or silhouettes with high contrast and

    no mid tones, so those are considered simple im-

    ages. Illustrations, photographs, digital images or

    halftone images that typically have finer lines and

    smaller details are considered complex images.

    (Note: If the line or image parts are too fine or

    small, the screen may clog when printing.) Once

     you choose an image, make a black-and-white

    print or photocopy using standard printer paper.

    EZScreenprint screens come in two mesh siz-

    es for simple or complex images. The Standard

    screen is 110 mesh and the HiDef screen is 200

    mesh. The 110 mesh has larger openings and is

    best for simple images, while the 200 mesh is a

    tighter screen (with more threads per square

    inch, resulting in smaller openings) and is best

    for the more complex images. Both screen mesh-

    es come in a variety of sizes.

    The image in figure 1 started with digital pho-

    tographs of tools in my studio, which were altered

    in Photoshop to make them high contrast black-

    and-white images. You can arrange the images on

    the screen in a group, leaving half-inch spaces be-

    tween individual images for easier printing. You

    can also fill the screen with just a single image,

    pattern, text or any combination of these. The

    image was printed on standard printer paper.

    Setting up the Exposure FrameWith the black-and-white image on paper, you’re

    ready to set up the exposure frame. Everything

    needed is supplied in the EZScreenprint starter

    kit—one 10×12-inch exposure frame (black felt-covered board with clips and Plexiglas), two sheets

    of 8½×11-inch Standard Stencils, small test strips,

    a plastic canvas and a small squeegee. Work in

    a dimly lit room while setting up the exposure

    frame to avoid prematurely exposing the screen.

    Remove the protective covering from both sides

    of the Plexiglas and place it on a flat surface, then

    align your black-and-white image in the center.

    Take one of the screens from the protective black

    envelope then close the bag tightly so the unused

    screen inside is still protected. Peel the protectivebacking off the screen (figure 1) and immediately

    place it shiny side down on top of the black-and-

    white image (figure 2). Place the black board on

    top of the screen with the black felt side down and

    clamp together with the clips provided in the kit.

    When done, take the frame out into the sun-

    light. Keep the Plexiglas side down to keep light

    from hitting it or cover it with a towel to protect it

    from light before and after exposing it to sunlight.

    1. Peeling protective covering off the screen. 2. Black felt covered board, screen centered over

    photocopy placed on Plexiglas and fastening clips.

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    Image & Design Transfer Techniques

    116

    Exposing and SettingOnce outside, turn the exposing frame Plexiglas

    side up to face the sun. Expose for 7 minutes dur-

    ing a regular sunny day and for 9 minutes if it’s

    a slightly overcast day. Dark, cloudy days with no

    real sunlight are not optimal and success varies

    if exposed under these conditions. I exposed this

    screen for 6 minutes on a partially cloudy day, but

    had good sunlight through the light clouds.

    Once exposure is complete, turn the frame

    over (Plexiglas side down) or cover with a towel

    and go inside. Unclamp the frame and submerge

    the screen in a sink or container filled with cool

    water for a minimum of 15 minutes to develop

     your stencil. Soaking longer than 15 minutes

    doesn’t harm the stencil in any way. After a min-

    ute or two, the unexposed areas blocked by the

    dark parts of your image appear light green. The

    exposed areas turn dark, and these darker areas

    become the stencil.

    After 15 minutes, place the perforated plastic

    canvas provided in the kit under the screen and

    rinse with cool water from a faucet or kitchen

    sprayer (figure 3). The plastic canvas acts as a pro-

    tective backing for the screen during the rinsing

    process. Rinse both sides of the screen to remove

    the unexposed emulsion (light areas). Take more

    care when rinsing the emulsion side. Keep rinsing

    until all the residue from the unexposed emulsion

    is completely removed. Use a soft nylon brush if

    there are some small detail areas that did not rinse

    out well. This happens more with complex images

    in the HiDef screens because of the tighter mesh.

    When thoroughly rinsed, hold screen up to the

    light to check it. You should only see the white

    threads of the screen itself in the open areas. If

     you still see a thin film of residue, rinse again. Af-

    ter completely rinsing, place the screen emulsion

    side up on a paper towel and dab off all the excess

    water (figure 4). Put a fresh dry paper towel un-

    der the screen with emulsion side up and take it

    outside to re-expose in the sun for 10–20 minutes.

    This hardens the stencil and making it durable and

    long-lasting.

    Using the ScreenOnce the screen is hardened, it’s ready to use!

    Since the screen is unframed, it’s flexible and can

    be used around a vessel or on a flat slab. Any sur-

    face you can bend the screen around is fair game

    to print your image. Be careful not to make creases

    in the screen if you try to bend it around sharpcorners. If you group several images onto one

    screen, you can use scissors to cut it into smaller

    individual screens (stencils).

    Experiment and have fun with this easy to use

    product. It’s a great way to create images for screen

    printing on clay that you thought were only pos-

    sible with a darkroom. You can screen images di-

    rectly onto greenware, bisqueware or decal paper

    using both underglaze and glaze.

    4. Dabbing off extra water from screen.3. Rinsing screen to remove unexposed emulsion.

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    The American Ceramic Societywww.CeramicArtsDaily.org

    Paul Andrew Wandless currently

    lives and works in Chicago creating

    art that combines ceramic processes

    and printmaking techniques to

    create clay prints that are also

    incorporated into freestanding and

    wall-mounted clay sculpture. In

    addition to authoring several books

    and numerous magazine articles,

    Wandless is also featured in Ceramic

    Art Daily’s video Fundamentals of

    Screen Printing On Clay  featuringhis techniques. Wandless holds an

    MFA from Arizona State University,

    an MA from Minnesota State

    University-Mankato, and a BFA from

    University of Delaware.

    For many years, ceramic artists have used printmaking, drawing

    and photography to enhance the surface of their work. Using

    underglazes, slips, and glazes it’s entirely possible to take

    advantage many 2-D mediums to decorate both functional and

    sculptural work.

    Image & Design Transfer Techniques covers more than thirty

    techniques that can be used on greenware, bisqueware and

    glazeware. You’ll discover ways to create and transfer images

    and designs using appliqué and paper transfers, decals, stencils,

    silkscreening, etching, stamping, embossing, and more.

    An expert printmaker-turned-clay artist, Paul Andrew Wandlesspresents you with many of his own discoveries where he found

    clay receptive to his many printmaking skills. In addition,

    he includes the methods of many talented artists who have

    developed a variety of applications that can add a whole new

    dimension to your clay surfaces.

    Whether you’re looking for the perfect book to start decorating

    or you need expert information to expand your skill set, Image &

    Design Transfer Techniques contains a wealth of information for

    every clay lover.