Challenges 2011 ultima versão

download Challenges 2011 ultima versão

of 26

Embed Size (px)

Transcript of Challenges 2011 ultima versão

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    1/26

    A influncia da interveno do e-tutor no desenvolvimento da reflexo crtica dos

    estudantes no e-frum: nveis de associao

    Resumo

    A maioria dos cursos atravs da Internet utiliza o frum electrnico, que permite o

    dilogo cognitivo, designadamente atravs da reflexo crtica colaborativa. O apoio do

    tutor colaborao, reflexo e aprendizagem permite explorar as caractersticas dos

    e-fruns e contribui para uma experincia acadmica mais positiva. Este estudo visava

    determinar quais so as tarefas do tutor no frum que contribuem para nveis mais

    elevados de reflexo. Procedeu-se anlise do contedo de 5 200 mensagens de fruns

    de um curso de mestrado a distncia. Definidos os indicadores de cada uma das

    variveis, 1) interveno do tutor e 2) reflexo crtica individual, foram identificados os

    pares de indicadores com nveis de associao elevados, moderados e fracos. As tarefas

    da tutoria mais associadas aos nveis superiores de reflexo dos estudantes foram: 1)

    fazer perguntas abertas aos estudantes, 2) modelar a discusso e 3) estabelecer

    associaes entre as intervenes dos estudantes.

    Palavras-chave: frum electrnico, tutoria, reflexo crtica

    Abstract

    Most courses through the Internet make use of the e-forum to promote cognitive

    dialogue among students and between students and their tutor, such as through critical

    thinking. The asynchronous discussion forums support collaboration, reflection and

    learning and can contribute to a more positive academic experience. This study aimed to

    identify the e-tutors tasks that contribute to higher levels of reflection. The content of 5

    200 messages of an e-Masters course was analyzed and the dimensions of the two

    variables tutors intervention and students critical thinking were set ,and the pair of

    indicators with high, moderate and weak levels of association were identified. Asking

    open questions to the students, modeling the debate and commenting on several

    students messages together had a stronger correlation with higher levels of the

    students critical thinking.

    Keywords: e-forum, e-tutoring, critical thinking

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    2/26

    Introduo

    Com o desenvolvimento das tecnologias da comunicao, dos sistemas de gesto da

    aprendizagem e das ferramentas de dilogo, o ensino a distncia passou a ter a

    possibilidade criar espaos de dilogo para desenvolver a interaco entre o professor e

    os estudantes e entre os estudantes.

    Apoiar tecnologicamente os estudantes, organizar e conduzir o debate, moderar a

    discusso, estimular a participao, resolver os problemas de comunicao, ajudar a

    estruturar a reflexo e conduzir o processo da construo do conhecimento ou de

    resoluo de problemas, esclarecer dvidas, corrigir trajectrias, constituem algumas

    das tarefas essenciais do tutor (Jorge, no prelo).

    Embora, em teoria, se d importncia ao debate entre os estudantes, na prtica, verifica-

    se que as discusses no frum tm pouca importncia na avaliao dos estudantes e otutor raramente tem uma estratgia clara de desenvolvimento das competncias

    reflexivas dos estudantes. Simultaneamente, os estudantes academicamente mais

    competentes revelam pouco entusiasmo pelo frum, como reflecte o depoimento de uma

    estudante:

    No me sinto de forma alguma motivada para responder a raciocnios to

    mal formulados e fundamentados. [sublinhado da estudante] Ao escrever

    aqui em 5 minutos sobre o que a Idalina me pede, e sem grande cuidado deestilo, pelo que tenho observado nos fruns, as pessoas vm ao frum

    discutir algo por obrigao, mas nem sempre tm vontade de o fazer.

    [sublinhado da estudante] Eu vou l, penso umas coisas, despejo e, se vale

    nota, vou procurar um ou dois livros e fundamento pela cabea dos outros,

    dando minha interveno um carcter de fiabilidade. Posso at intervir

    porque quero, porque acho interessante uma interveno, porque me irrita,

    etc. [sublinhado da estudante] A mim o que me leva a intervir nos fruns

    que no tm um carcter obrigatrio [sublinhado da investigadora] meu,todos os outros so da autoria da prpria] o facto de algumas intervenes

    me enervarem bastante, de tal mal argumentadas: ento intervenho.

    [sublinhado da estudante] () As pessoas so to pouco crticas e abertas a

    novas coisas. Quando falam e criticam, fazem-no pela sua posio

    dogmtica e individualista? Querero realmente as pessoas aprender com o

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    3/26

    que os outros dizem ou s pretendem fingir que os ouvem? [sublinhado da

    estudante] E ao ouvi-los, procuram atingir o real sentido das suas palavras?

    ()

    No depoimento desta estudante so de salientar as categorias principais: nos fruns 1)

    pensa-se mal e 2) participa-se por obrigao, no por uma vontade intrnseca de debater

    ideias e de aprender com os outros.

    Decorrendo da crena de que se podem e devem desenvolver actividades autnticas que

    promovem o dilogo e a colaborao entre os estudantes, de tirar partido do saber e da

    experincia de cada um, foram experimentadas vrias funes e estratgias tipificadas

    na literatura, no sentido de tirar dele o maior partido, em termos do desenvolvimento

    das funes cognitivas superiores.

    Reviso da literatura

    O dilogo uma componente essencial da aprendizagem. No caso da aprendizagem a

    distncia e mediada pelos computadores, desde o incio dos anos 90 so atribudos ao

    dilogo entre estudantes e entre os estes e o seu professor, efeitos positivos na

    aprendizagem, na socializao, motivao e satisfao dos estudantes com o seu curso.

    Por outro lado, estimular a reflexo crtica dos estudantes um objectivo educacional

    essencial na sociedade actual. O conceito foi discutido por um conjunto de sbiosliderado por Facione (1990) que o definiram nestes termos:

    O pensamento crtico um juzo deliberado, auto-regulatrio, de que

    resulta a interpretao, a anlise, a avaliao, a inferncia e a

    explicao de consideraes () em que um juzo se fundamenta ()

    O pensamento crtico uma competncia de um esprito inquisitivo,

    bem informado, racional, aberto, flexvel, justo, honesto, prudente a

    julgar, disposto a reconsiderar e a esclarecer, () diligente na procura

    de informao relevante, razovel na seleco de critrios, disposto a

    investigar e persistente na procura de resultados precisos.

    Contudo, nem todos os processos cognitivos podem ser considerados

    pensamento crtico, j que este constitui uma forma superior de competncias

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    4/26

    de resoluo de problemas, de tomada de deciso e de pensamento criativo que,

    em simultneo, congregam as dimenses cognitiva e afectiva.

    Entre o pensamento crtico e no-crtico, a diferena coloca-se ao nvel do

    processamento profundo ou superficial. profundidade do processamento

    correspondem categorias como: 1) a relevncia, 2) a clareza, 3) a utilizao de

    conhecimento ou da experincia para analisar o problema, 4) a ligao de

    ideias e a interpretao, 5) a justificao, 6) a utilidade prtica, 7) a

    profundidade da compreenso, 8) o juzo crtico. presena e a ausncia

    destas categorias no pensamento dos estudantes corresponde uma marcao

    positiva ou negativa de pensamento crtico.

    No entanto, o desenvolvimento de competncias do pensamento crtico dos estudantes

    depende da matriz filosfica dos seus professores que devem, eles prprios, desenvolv-las.

    A matriz filosfica do professor, as suas crenas e valores em relao s questes do

    ensino em geral, e educao de adultos, em particular, e o meio em que desenvolve o

    seu trabalho influenciam o seu estilo e estratgias de ensino.

    O estilo de ensino do tutor, a forma como concebe e desenvolve o ambiente de

    aprendizagem, os mtodos e as estratgias que utiliza para apresentar os contedos, a

    forma como lidera as discusses, como encoraja as interaces, alimenta a curiosidade

    dos estudantes, marca a diferena na qualidade das interaces do frum.

    Um tutor que cr nas vantagens da autonomia e da interaco, aceita novas ideias,

    valoriza as diferenas de opinio, estimula diferentes pontos de vista, procura novas

    formas de ensinar e de aprender e sabe identificar o que despoleta a reflexo, inspira e

    motiva os estudantes (Barrows, 1992), que os encoraja a tornarem-se independentes e a

    procurar por si prprios a informao para fundamentarem opinies e hipteses,

    responde a perguntas, sugere percursos, diagnostica ms interpretaes, fornece

    explicaes alternativas, tem uma matriz terica baseada na autonomia, na

    interdependncia, na comunicao e na interaco (Keegan, 1998; Paulsen, 1995).

    Hamza & Nash (1996) encontraram relaes entre a personalidade do tutor e sua

    eficcia e verificaram que os estilos de tutoria influenciam o desempenho dos

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    5/26

    estudantes e o ambiente de aprendizagem, tornando-o mais ou menos propiciador da

    criatividade e do desenvolvimento de competncias.

    Estas associaes j haviam sido verificadas por Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan

    (1991) e s-lo-iam posteriormente porChan (2002), no que diz respeito importncia

    do estilo de motivao, um conceito educacional relevante nos resultados acadmicos e

    no desenvolvimento de competncias individuais e sociais dos estudantes. Chan (2002),

    num estudo em que utilizou a verso chinesa do teste de Myers-Briggs (MBTI),

    concluiu que certos traos de personalidade esto associados ao estilo de tutoria

    mediada pelos computadores. Tambm Tonelson (1981) afirma que a personalidade do

    professor tem repercusses nos resultados da aprendizagem e influencia o ambiente

    psicolgico em que esta ocorre.

    A investigao sugere igualmente que a motivao dos alunos influenciada pelo estilo

    do professor, mais directivo ou de tendncia mais autonmica (Deci & Ryan, 1987;

    Reeve, 1998).

    Barrows (1992) considera que, em educao a distncia, as situaes de passividade do

    estudante, em que o tutor decide o que se aprende, com que profundidade e sequncia,

    prejudica a aquisio de algumas competncias, designadamente de resoluo de

    problemas e de aprendizagem independente e crtica. Deste modo, as estratgias que

    promovem a interdependncia entre os estudantes, a reflexo crtica e a aprendizagem

    autnoma e tiram partido da diversidade de competncias e de experincias so maisapropriadas.

    Os estudantes que tm professores com este perfil se consideram academicamente mais

    competentes e mais motivados (Deci et al., 1991), mais criativos (Hamza & Nash,

    1996), revelam uma compreenso mais profunda dos contedos (Boggiano, Flint,

    Shields, Seelbach, & Barett, 1993), apresentam taxas de abandono mais reduzidas (Tait,

    2004), melhores aprendizagens e nveis de satisfao (Swan et al, 2000).

    A personalidade do professor e o seu estilo de ensino esto fortemente associados, e

    tambm existe uma relao significativa entre a personalidade do tutor e o grau de

    coeso dos estudantes (Gao e Gu, 2005).

    Quanto s funes do e-tutor no e-forum, a literatura utiliza vrias designaes, que

    reflectem diferenas conceptuais e de orientao terica e filosfica sobre a

    aprendizagem e, em particular, sobre a aprendizagem na idade adulta; contudo, j

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    6/26

    claro que s com uma interveno activa por parte do e-moderador, que concebe,

    organiza, dinamiza e conduz, clarifica, o frum consegue levantar voo.

    No contexto do frum, tarefas como: 1) identificar opinies convergentes ou

    divergentesde modo a que os estudantes compreendam em profundidade a relevncia

    dos assuntos discutidos; 2) procurar consensos e entendimentos, de modo a que os

    estudantes se sintam apoiados no seu percurso de aprendizagem; 3) encorajar e reforar

    as contribuies dos estudantes e manifestar apreo pelas suas contribuies (Shank,

    2001); 4) criar um clima de confiana e de interesse recproco propcio aprendizagem

    (Wilson et al., 2005), encorajando os estudantes a explorar os contedos,

    desconstruindo, reconstruindo e desenvolvendo novas ideias e raciocnios (Winniecki,

    1999); 5) solicitar a participao e estimular o debate, mantendo os estudantes

    envolvidos e 6) avaliar o processo, mantendo o curso do debate (Garrison & Anderson,

    2003), contribuem para um clima cognitivo e social adequado aprendizagem. No

    frum, o professor tem de garantir igualdade de oportunidades, chamar ao debate os

    menos participativos, instigar a participao e promover a interao, gerir situaes de

    conflito, transformando-as em oportunidades para estreitar relaes e desenvolver

    competncias de resoluo de conflitos (Strickland, 1998), diminuir o impacto negativo

    da assincronia e de um eventual excesso de informao, referindo-se a vrias mensagens

    na mesma interveno e estabelecendo conexes entre elas.

    Metodologia

    1. As perguntas de investigaoO estudo procurou determinar o nvel de associao entre as diversas tarefas de tutoria e

    os nveis superiores de reflexo dos estudantes.

    2. O contexto e o material de estudoForam seleccionadas 5 200 mensagens de fruns de discusso num curso de Mestrado

    em regime a distncia de uma universidade portuguesa.

    3. As variveis e a sua operacionalizaoA interveno do e-tutor no frum foi operacionalizada nos termos do quadro 1.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    7/26

    Quadro 1. Modelo de codificao da interveno do tutor no frum

    Interveno do tutor

    Comunicar aos estudantes os objectivos e/ou regras e condies do debate.

    Criar um clima de debate, positivo e amigvel (boas vindas, cumprimentos, estmulos ereforos).

    Mediar conflitos.

    Modelar a discusso.

    Reconduzir a discusso, quando se foge ao tema.

    Apresentar pontos de vista opostos ou conflituais.

    Propor temas de discusso relevantes para o curso.

    Apresentar as diferentes perspectivas sobre o tema, os pontos de vista opostos ou

    conflituais.Fornecer sugestes de orientao e encaminhar o debate.

    Comentar as participaes dos estudantes.

    Fazer perguntas abertas aos estudantes para esclarecimentos, justificaes ou

    desenvolvimentos de mensagens, colocadas por eles e pelos estudantes

    Clarificar, esclarecer e desenvolver algumas, prprias ou dos estudantes.

    Responder a dvidas e perguntas dos estudantes e dar opinies especializadas e

    A varivel reflexo foi operacionalizada nos termos do quadro 2.

    Quadro 2. Modelode codificaodos processosindividuaisde reflexo crtica

    Cdigo Descrio

    OPINIES Pressupostos, ou afirmaes, ou negaes meramente

    opinativas.

    Concordncia ou discordncia em relao a outras posies,

    quer exteriores, quer de outros participantes do frum.Referncia a experincias, pessoais ou alheias.

    RACIOCNIO/

    ARGUMENTAO

    INDUO/

    Ilaes implcitas, sem uma completa argumentao explcita

    Induo a partir de experincias (pessoais ou alheias), ou

    deduo a partir de conhecimentos tericos.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    8/26

    DEDUO Concluses, ou hipteses, ou interpretaes, ou condies de

    realizao fundamentadas.

    PREVISO/

    AVALIAO

    Previso fundamentada de implicaes ou de consequncias.

    Avaliao de implicaes, ou hipteses, ou consequncias, ou

    de condies de realizao.Apresentao de solues.

    RACIOCNIO

    DIVERGENTE

    Reestruturao fundamentada do tema/problema. Snteses.

    4. As unidades de anliseA unidade de anlise adoptada para a varivel interveno do tutor foi a mensagem.

    Numa mensagem, podem ocorrer vrias funes. Para o tratamento estatstico foi

    contado o nmero de mensagens em que cada funo ocorreu.

    Para avaliar a reflexo dos estudantes, a unidade de anlise foi a mensagem. Em cada

    mensagem foi identificado o nvel cognitivo superior, que determinou a sua

    classificao nos nveis 1 a 4.

    5. Os procedimentos

    As mensagens seleccionadas no sistema foram mantidas na sua ordem cronolgica,

    importadas para um programa de anlise qualitativa, onde foram codificadas. As

    categorias foram sendo progressivamente refinadas, de modo a tornarem-se mutuamente

    exclusivas.

    Quando se estabeleceu um protocolo estvel, foram dadas a dois codificadores

    (professores de Filosofia do Ensino Secundrio) as sequncias completas de quarenta

    fruns; estes codificadores trabalharem em conjunto na codificao, seguiram,

    aplicaram e apuraram o protocolo, ajustando e verificando as regras e procedimentos e

    codificaram o material seleccionado.

    Aps este refinamento, a investigadora procedeu a uma primeira codificao. Dada a

    extenso do material codificado e o risco de memorizao reforado pelo tempo da

    tarefa, houve que proceder a diversas pausas, que levaram a um tempo de codificao de

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    9/26

    um ano. Fez-se um intervalo de codificao de seis meses e procedeu-se a uma segunda

    codificao.

    Os dados foram registados num software de tratamento estatstico, (SPSS); os nveis 3 e

    4 de reflexo foram recodificados para o nvel 3, dada a baixa percentagem de

    ocorrncias de nvel 4.

    Para medir a estabilidade temporal das codificaes e a percentagem de concordncia,

    inter-codificadores, o coeficiente de Holsti (1969) e o kappa de Cohen so os mais

    utilizados. O kapppa de Cohen mede a proporo de concordncia entre grupos

    diferentes de avaliadores ou avaliaes. Ao kappa de Cohen atribudo o inconveniente

    de ter de haver uma deciso a priori, quanto ao nmero de ocorrncias de codificao,

    problema que no se colocou neste estudo, j que a unidade de anlise foi a mensagem

    que, ao contrrio de outras, uma unidade bem definida.

    Resultados e Concluses

    1. Participao do tutor e dos estudantesDas 5 200 mensagens, com uma mdia de 93 palavras e de 5,8 frases por cada

    mensagem, foram registadas 622 mensagens do tutor. A participao da tutora no frum

    equivale a uma percentagem de cerca de 12% do total das mensagens. Uma mensagem

    da tutora pode conter indicadores de vrias categorias, j que todas as mensagens

    contm elementos de natureza social, como saudaes e despedidas, estmulos, reforos.

    A distribuio das funes das mensagens da tutora apresentada por nmero de

    ocorrncias no quadro 3 e a distribuio das mensagens dos estudantes apresentada

    por percentagem de ocorrncias no quadro 4.

    Quadro 3. Ocorrncias das intervenes da tutora no frum por categoria

    Interveno do tutor Ocorrncias

    1. Comunicar os objectivos e/ou regras e condies do debate. 402. Propor temas de discusso. 403. Criar um clima de debate, positivo e amigvel (boas vindas,

    cumprimentos, estmulos e reforos).622

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    10/26

    4. Modelar a discusso. 565. Reconduzir a discusso, quando se foge ao tema. 486. Apresentar as diferentes perspectivas (externas ao debate)

    sobre o tema, os pontos de vista opostos ou conflituais.76

    7. Fornecer sugestes de orientao e encaminhar o debate. 578. Comentar as participaes (individuais) dos estudantes. 689. Comentar vrias intervenes dos estudantes e estabelecer

    associaes entre elas101

    10.Fazer perguntas aos estudantes para esclarecimentos,justificaes ou desenvolvimentos de mensagens.

    49

    11.Esclarecer e desenvolver ideias. 5912.Responder a dvidas e perguntas dos estudantes e dar

    opinies especializadas e aconselhamento.56

    13.Mediar conflitos. 0

    Embora a literatura refira a mediao de conflitos, no houve ocorrncias nos fruns

    analisados.

    Quadro 4. A interveno dos estudantes no frum por categoria

    Cdigo Descrio % Por

    categoria

    OPINIES

    1. Pressupostos, ou afirmaes, ounegaes meramente opinativas.

    58,5%

    2. Concordncia ou discordncia emrelao a outras posies, quer

    exteriores, quer de outros

    participantes do frum.

    3. Referncia a experincias, pessoaisou alheias.

    RACIOCNIO/ 4. Ilaes implcitas, sem uma completa 32,9%

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    11/26

    2. Nveis de associaoOs nveis de associao foram medidos atravs do V de Cramer; foram consideradas

    mais elevadas as associaes superiores a 0,400; foi considerada moderada uma

    associao entre pares de categorias no intervalo entre 0,250 e 0,399. Abaixo desse

    nvel, os nveis de associao foram considerados fracos. Foi considerada apenas a

    associao entre as tarefas da tutoria e o nvel 3 de reflexo (recodificado).

    As associaes fortes entre as tarefas da tutoria e a reflexo foram: 1) modelar a

    discusso, 2) fazer perguntas abertas aos estudantes para esclarecimentos, justificaes

    ou desenvolvimentos de mensagens e 3) comentar vrias intervenes dos estudantes

    e estabelecer associaes entre elas.

    Limitaes do estudo e perspectivas de futuro

    As dificuldades e limitaes deste estudo prendem-se simultaneamente com questes de

    natureza metodolgica e terica.

    ARGUMENTAO

    INDUO/

    DEDUO

    argumentao explcita

    5. Induo a partir de experincias(pessoais ou alheias), ou deduo a

    partir de conhecimentos tericos.

    6. Concluses, ou hipteses, ouinterpretaes, ou condies de

    realizao fundamentadas.

    PREVISO/

    AVALIAO

    7. Previso fundamentada deimplicaes ou de consequncias.

    7,7%

    8. Avaliao de implicaes, ouhipteses, ou consequncias, ou de

    condies de realizao.

    9. Apresentao de solues.RACIOCNIO

    DIVERGENTE

    10.Reestruturao fundamentada dotema/problema. Snteses.

    0,9

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    12/26

    De natureza metodolgica a dificuldade em atingir nveis de concordncia aceitveis

    e reveladores da estabilidade das codificaes. Esta prende-se teoricamente com o

    nmero elevado de categorias dentro de cada varivel, o que dificulta o processo de

    estabilizao.

    A dificuldade em atingir nveis de concordncia aceitveis sugere que se desenvolvam

    sistemas de debate em que so os participantes a codificar as suas mensagens num

    nmero limitado de categorias, a partir de um quadro referencial fornecido pelos seus

    tutores; tal exerccio funciona igualmente como estratgia de auto-regulao.

    Notaram-se ainda diferenas entre as vrias linhas de discusso relacionadas com os

    assuntos em debate a composio dos grupos, o que sugere a necessidade de

    compreender o que lhes especfico, designadamente quando alguns estudantes

    assumem funes de tutoria, o que nos coloca o imperativo de procurar compreender ofrum na sua multidimensionalidade e interpretar os padres que emergem da anlise

    de dados, pelo que as perguntas de investigao tm de ser colocadas de modo a

    permitir um estudo integrado das variveis.

    Os resultados sugerem ainda pistas para a estrutura da mensagem desencadeante do

    debate e uma ateno cuidada, no apenas sua sequncia, ao fluir das ideias de umas

    mensagens para as outras, mas tambm a mensagens nucleares, em torno das quais

    surgem novos desenvolvimentos. Da poder surgir uma taxinomia de perguntas abertasque conduzem o dilogo cognitivo aos seus nveis superiores e iluminam o modus

    operandi do tutor.

    Decorre ainda dos resultados a hiptese de que solues tecnolgicas mais interactivas

    que facilitem o manuseamento da informao contida no frum mas, acima de tudo, de

    que os estudantes necessitam no apenas de reflexo e de tempo para o fazer, mas

    tambm de um acompanhamento e conduo adequados por parte do tutor.

    A escassez de unidades da categoria da reestruturao fundamentada do tema/problema pode estar relacionada com a complexidade dos temas, a falta de informao ou de

    capacidade dos estudantes para a reunir, a mera falta de tempo para desenvolver os

    assuntos ou ainda pela forma como a tutoria exercida. Neste aspecto, possvel

    dispensar um ou dois estudantes da participao no frum e encarreg-los de fazer uma

    sntese do debate.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    13/26

    Referncias

    Anderson, T., Rourke, L. , Garrison, R., Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching

    presence in a computer conferencing context. JournalofAsynchronous Learning

    Networks, 5(2), 1-17.

    Arranz, V., Aguado, D., Luca, B. (2008). Estudio de acciones en un caso prctico.

    Revista de Psicologa del Trabajoyde las Organizaciones, 24(1), 5-23.

    Berge, Z. L. (1995). Facilitating computer conferencing: recommendations from the

    field.Educational Technology, 35(1), 22-30.

    Boggiano, A., Flink, C., Shields, A., Seelbach, A., Barret, M. (1993). Use of techniques

    promoting students' self-determination: effects on students' analytic problem-solving

    skills. Motivation andEmotion, 17, 319-336.

    Chan, B. (2002). A study of the relationship between tutor's personality and teaching

    effectiveness: Does culture make a difference?IRRODL, 3(2). OEI

    http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/110/190> [Consultado: Nov. 2009].

    Deci, E. & Ryan, R. (1985).Intrinsic motivation andself-determinationin human

    behavior. New York: Plenum Press.

    Deci, E., Valleran, R. , Pelletier, L. & Ryan, R. (1991). Motivation in education: the

    self-determination perspective. The Educational Psychologist 26, 325-346.

    Facione, P. A. (1990). Executive summary- critical thinking. A statementofexpert

    consensusfor purposesofeducational assessment andinstruction. Millbrae, CA:

    California Academic Press.

    Hamza, K., Nash, William (1996). Creating and fostering a learning environment that

    promotes creative thinking and problem solving skills.Reports-Research/Technical.

    Hiltz, S., Turoff, M.(1985). Structuring computer-mediated communications to avoid

    information overload. Communicationsofthe ACM(28:7), 680-689.

    Keegan, D. (1998). The two modes of distance education. Open Learning, November,

    25-29.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    14/26

    Jorge, I. (2001).Navegarno portugus: programa on-line de formaode professores

    de portugusdo ensinosecundrio: avaliaoformativa [BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL

    DE PORTUGAL, Texto policopiado].

    Jorge, I (2006). Navegarno portugus: programa on-line de formaode professores

    de portugusdo ensinosecundrio:reflexo crtica, participao, interaco e tutoria.[BIBLIOTECA NACIONAL DE PORTUGAL, Texto policopiado].

    Jorge, I. (2010). Social presence andcognitive presence in anon-line trainingprogram

    for teachersofPortuguese: relation andprediction.IODL/ICEM, ANADOLU

    NIVERSITESI, ESKISEHIR,Conference proceedings.

    Jorge, I. (2010). Comunicaomediada pelo computador:Tendnciasda investigao(de Henri , 1992, a Calvani, Fini &Molino, 2010). Estudometa-analtico.Comunicao apresentada Conferncia ticEDUCA. Lisboa: Instituto de Educao.

    Jorge, I (no prelo).A importncia das tarefasdo e-tutorno e-frum: percepesde

    estudantesde cursosde ps-graduao em regimesde e-aprendizagem e misto:

    diferenasde gnero, idade,formao acadmica e de experincia tecnolgica.

    Mazzolini, M., Maddison, S. (2003). Sage, guide or ghost? The effect of instructor

    intervention on student participation in online discussion forums. Computers &

    Education, 40, 237-253.

    Mason, R. (1997). Moderating educational computer conferencing. Disponvel online:

    OEI (Consultado: 23 Jan. 2004).

    Paulsen, M. (1995). Moderating educational computer conferences. In Berge, Zane , L.

    & Collins, M. (Eds.).Computer-mediatedcommunication andthe on-line classroomin

    distance education. Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

    Paulus, T. & Roberts, G. (2006). Learning through Dialogue: online case studies ineducational psychology . JournalofTechnology andTeacher Education, 14 (4 ), 731-

    754.

    Rossman, M. (1999). Successful online teaching using an asynchronous learner

    discussion forum. JournalofAsynchronous LearningNetworks, 3, 91-97.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    15/26

    Salmon, G. (2000).E-moderating: the key to teachingonline. London: Kogan Page.

    Schank, R. C. ( 2001).Designingworld-class e-learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Strickland, C. (1998). A Personal Experience with Electronic Community. CMC

    Magazine. OEI< http://www.december.com/cmc/mag/1998/jun/strick.html > [Consultado: Mar. 2007]

    Swan, K., Shea, P., Fredericksen, E., Pickett, A., Pelz, W. , & Maher, G. (2000).

    Building knowledge building communities: consistencies, contact and communication

    in the virtual classroom. JournalofEducationalComputingResearch, 23(4), 359383

    Tait, J. (2004). The tutor/facilitator role in student retention. Open Learning, 19, 1, 97-

    109.

    Tonelson, S. (1981). The importance of teacher self concept to create a healthypsychological environment for learning.Education, 102, 96-100.

    The influence of e-tutor's intervention in the development of critical thinking in students' e-

    forum: membership levels

    Summary

    Most courses via the Internet using the electronic forum that allows cognitive dialogue,

    including through critical reflection. The tutor support to collaboration, reflection and learning

    can explore the characteristics of e-forums and contributes to a more positive academic

    experience. This study aims to identify what are the tasks of the mentor forum that contribute

    to higher levels of reflection. Proceeded to the content analysis of 5200 messages in forums

    for a Masters course at a distance. Defined indicators of each variable, 1) intervention by the

    tutor and 2) individual reflection, identified the pair of indicators with high levels of

    membership, moderate and weak. The tasks of mentoring most associated with higher levels

    of reflection students were: 1) Asking open to students, 2) model the discussion and 3) to

    establish associations between the actions of students.

    Keywords: electronic forum, mentoring, critical reflection

    Abstract

    Most courses through the Internet make use of the e-forum dialogue to promote: Among

    students and cognitive Between Authorities and their tutor students, such as through critical

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    16/26

    thinking. The asynchronous discussion forums support collaboration, reflection and learning

    and Can Contribute to a more positive academic experience. This study Aimed to identify the

    e-tutor's tasks That Contribute to higher levels of reflection. The content of 5200 messages of

    an e-Masters course was Analyzed and the dimensions of the two variables - Tutor's

    Intervention and students' critical thinking - Were set, and the pair of indicators with high,moderate and weak levels of association Were been identified. Asking open questions to the

    students, modeling the debate and commenting on Several students 'messages together Had a

    stronger correlation with higher levels of the students' critical thinking.

    Keywords: e-forums, e-tutoring, critical thinking

    Introduction

    With the development of communication technologies, management systems of learning and

    dialogue tools, distance learning has to be able to create spaces for dialogue to develop theinteraction between teacher and students and among students.

    Technologically support the students, organize and lead the debate, moderating the

    discussion, encourage participation, solving the problems of communication, help structure

    the debate and lead the process of building knowledge or solving problems, answer questions,

    correct courses, constitute some of the essential tasks of the mentor (George, in press).

    Although, in theory, giving greater importance to the debate among students, in practice, it

    appears that the discussions in the forum are of little importance in the evaluation of students

    and the tutor rarely has a clear strategy of developing the reflective skills of students.

    Simultaneously, more academically competent show little enthusiasm for the forum, as

    reflected in the testimony of one student:

    I do not feel at all motivated to respond to arguments as badly formulated and substantiated.

    [Emphasis added by the student] When writing here in five minutes about what Idalina asks

    me, without great care and style, from what I've seen in forums, people come to the forum to

    discuss something out of obligation, but not always willing, to do. [Emphasis added by the

    student] I go there, I think some things, eviction, and if it is worth note, I will try one or two

    books and plea by the head of others, giving my speech a matter of reliability. I can even speak

    because I want to, because I think an interesting speech because my pet peeves, etc..

    [Emphasis added by the student] to me which leads me to intervene in the forums that do not

    have a mandatory [emphasis added by the researcher] is mine, all others are the author's own]

    is that unnerves me quite some interventions, such poorly argued, then speak. [Emphasis

    added by the student] (...) People are so little criticism and open to new things. When they talk

    and criticize, do it for his dogmatic position and individualistic? People actually want to learn

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    17/26

    from what others say or just want to pretend that they hear? [Emphasis added by the student]

    And to hear them, seek to achieve the real meaning of his words? (...)

    In testimony this student is to highlight the main categories: one in the forums) think is wrong

    and 2) to participate out of obligation, not by an intrinsic desire to discuss ideas and learn from

    others.Arising from the belief that one can and should undertake activities that promote genuine

    dialogue and collaboration among students, to take advantage of knowledge and experience

    of each, were tried various functions and strategies typified in the literature, to take from it

    largest party in terms of the development of higher cognitive functions.

    Literature review

    The dialogue is an essential component of learning. In the case of distance learning and

    mediated by computers since the early 90s are assigned to the dialogue among and between

    these students and their teacher, positive effects on learning, socialization, motivation andstudents' satisfaction with their course.

    On the other hand, stimulate students' critical thinking is a key educational objective in today's

    society. The concept was discussed by a group of scholars led by Facione (1990) who defined it

    in these terms:

    Critical thinking is a deliberate judgment, self-regulating, which results in interpretation,

    analysis, evaluation, inference and explanation of considerations (...) in which a court relies (...)

    Critical thinking is the responsibility of a inquisitive spirit, well-informed, rational, open,

    flexible, fair, honest, wise judge, willing to reconsider and to clarify, (...) diligent in seeking

    relevant information, reasonable in selection criteria, willing to investigate and persistent in

    seeking accurate results.

    However, not all cognitive processes can be considered critical, since this is a superior form of

    problem-solving skills, decision making and creative thinking that simultaneously bring

    together the cognitive and affective dimensions.

    Among the critical and non-critical, difference to the level of processing deep or shallow. At a

    depth of processing corresponding categories: 1) relevance, 2) clarity, 3) the use of knowledge

    or experience to analyze the problem, 4) the connection of ideas and interpretation, 5)

    justification, 6) the usefulness practice, 7) the depth of understanding, 8) the critical

    judgments. In the presence and absence of these categories in the minds of students

    represents a positive or negative marking of critical thinking.

    However, the development of critical thinking skills of students depends on the philosophical

    roots of their teachers who must themselves develop them.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    18/26

    The philosophical roots of the teacher, its beliefs and values regarding education issues in

    general and adult education in particular and environment in which he develops his work

    influencing his style and teaching strategies.

    The teaching style of the tutor, how to design and develop the learning environment, methods

    and strategies they use to display content, the way leads the discussions, interactions andencourages, nurtures students' curiosity, marks the difference in the quality of the interactions

    of the forum.

    A coach who believes in the advantages of autonomy and interaction, accept new ideas, values

    differences of opinion, encourages different points of view, seeking new ways of teaching and

    learning and can identify what triggers reflection, inspires and motivates students (Barrows,

    1992), which encourages them to become independent and seek for themselves the

    information to substantiate opinions and hypotheses, answers questions, suggests pathways,

    diagnose misperceptions, provides alternative explanations, has a theoretical frameworkbased on autonomy, interdependence, communication and interaction (Keegan, 1998;

    Paulsen, 1995).

    Hamza & Nash (1996) found relationships between personality and effectiveness of the tutor

    and found that styles of mentoring influence student performance and learning environment,

    making it more or less a helping of creativity and skill development.

    These associations have already been verified by Deci, Vallerand, Pelletier, & Ryan (1991) and

    would be so later by Chan (2002), with regard to the importance of style of motivation, a

    concept relevant educational and academic results the development of individual and social

    skills of students. Chan (2002), in a study that used the Chinese version of the Myers-Briggs

    test (MBTI), concluded that certain personality traits are associated with the style of mentoring

    mediated by computers. Also Tonelson (1981) states that the personality of the teacher has an

    impact on learning outcomes and influences the psychological environment in which it occurs.

    Research also suggests that student motivation is influenced by the style of the teacher, or

    more directors of a more autonomous (Deci & Ryan, 1987; Reeve, 1998).

    Barrows (1992) considers that in distance education, the situations of passivity of the student,

    the tutor who decides what is learned, with the depth and sequence, impaired the acquisition

    of some skills, including problem solving and learning critically and independently. Thus,

    strategies that promote interdependence among students, critical thinking and independent

    learning and benefit from diversity of skills and experience are more appropriate.

    Students who have teachers with this profile are considered academically more competent

    and better motivated (Deci et al., 1991), creative (Hamza & Nash, 1996), reveal a deeper

    understanding of the content (Boggiano, Flint, Shields, Seelbach , & Barett, 1993), have lower

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    19/26

    dropout rates (Tait, 2004), better learning and levels of satisfaction (Swan et al, 2000).

    The personality of the teacher and his teaching style are strongly associated, and there is also a

    significant relationship between the personality of the tutor and the degree of cohesion

    among students (Gao and Gu, 2005).

    As the tasks of e-tutor in the e-forum, literature uses several names, which reflect differencesin theoretical orientation and conceptual and philosophical about learning and, in particular,

    about learning in adulthood, however, it is clear that only with an active intervention by the e-

    moderator, who conceives, organizes, leads and streamlines, clarifies, the forum can "take

    off".

    During the forum, such tasks as: 1) identify converging or divergentesde so that students

    understand in depth the relevance of issues discussed, 2) seek consensus and understanding,

    so that students feel supported in their learning and 3) encourage and reinforce students'

    contributions and express appreciation for their contributions (Shank, 2001), 4) create aclimate of trust and mutual interests conducive to learning (Wilson et al., 2005), encouraging

    students to explore content, deconstructing, reconstructing and developing new ideas and

    reasoning (Winniecki, 1999), 5) seek the participation and stimulate discussion, keeping

    students involved and 6) evaluate the process, keeping the course of debate (Garrison &

    Anderson, 2003 ) contribute to a climate-appropriate social and cognitive learning. At the

    forum, the teacher has to ensure equal opportunities, call the debate to less participatory,

    instigating participation and promote interaction, manage conflicts, turning them into

    opportunities to deepen relationships and develop skills in conflict resolution (Strickland,

    1998), decrease the negative impact of asynchrony and a possible excess of information,

    referring to several posts in the same intervention and establishing connections between

    them.

    Methodology

    1. The research questions

    The study examined the association level between the various tasks of mentoring and higher

    levels of student reflection.

    2. The context and the study material

    5200 messages were selected for discussion forums on a Masters course under the distance of

    a Portuguese university.

    3. The variables and their operationalization

    The intervention of the e-tutor forum was operationalized in accordance with Table 1.

    Table 1. Coding format of the intervention of the tutor forum

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    20/26

    Intervention Tutor

    Communicate to students the objectives and / or terms and conditions of the debate.

    Create a climate of debate, positive and friendly (welcome, greetings, encouragement and

    reinforcement).

    Mediate conflicts.Shaping the discussion.

    Redirect the discussion when it is beyond the subject.

    Present opposing viewpoints or conflicting.

    Propose topics for discussion relevant to the course.

    Present the different perspectives on the subject, opposing viewpoints or conflicting.

    Provide guidance and suggestions for the debate forward.

    Comment on the participation of students.

    Open to students to ask questions for clarification, justification or developments of messagesposted by them and for students

    Clarify, clarify and develop some of its own or the students.

    Respond to inquiries and questions from students and give expert opinions and advice.

    The variable reflection was operationalized in accordance with Table 2.

    Table 2. Coding format of the individual processes of critical reflection

    Code Description

    OPINIONS assumptions or assertions, denials or merely opinionated.

    Agreement or disagreement in relation to other locations, either outside or from other forum

    participants.

    Reference to testing, personal or others.

    THINKING /

    ARGUMENT

    INDUCTION /

    DEDUCTION Lessons implicit, explicit argument without a full

    Induction from experience (personal or others), or deduction from theoretical knowledge.

    Conclusions or assumptions, or interpretations, or fulfillment conditions stated.

    ESTIMATED /

    EVALUATION reasoned forecast of implications or consequences.

    Assessment of implications or assumptions, or consequences, or conditions of realization.

    Presentation of solutions.

    DIVERGENT THINKING Restructuring based theme / issue. Syntheses.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    21/26

    4. The units of analysis

    The unit of analysis adopted for the variable was the intervention of the tutor message. In a

    message, there may be multiple roles. The statistic was counted the number of messages in

    which each function has occurred.

    To evaluate the reflection of the students, the unit of analysis was the message. In eachmessage was identified higher cognitive level, which determined its classification in levels 1-4.

    5. Procedures

    Selected messages in the system were kept in chronological order, imported into a qualitative

    analysis program, where they were coded. The categories were progressively refined in order

    to become mutually exclusive.

    When we established a stable protocol, were given to two encoders (professors of philosophy

    of Secondary Education) of the complete sequences of forty forums; these coders worktogether on coding, then apply the protocol and ascertained by adjusting and checking the

    rules and procedures and coded the material selected.

    After this refinement, the researcher held an initial coding. Given the length of the encoded

    material and the risk of increased memorization by the time of the task, had to make several

    breaks, which led to an encoding time of one year. There was a range of encoding six months

    and proceeded to a second encoding.

    Data were recorded in a statistical software (SPSS), levels 3 and 4 were recoded to reflect the

    level 3, the low percentage of occurrences of level 4.

    To measure the temporal stability of the encodings and the percentage of agreement, inter-

    coding, the coefficient of Holsti (1969) and Cohen's kappa are the most used. The kapppa

    Cohen measures the proportion of agreement between different groups of raters or ratings.

    Cohen's kappa to be awarded the inconvenience of having an a priori decision regarding the

    number of occurrences of coding problem that did not arise in this study, since the unit of

    analysis was the message that, unlike others, is a well-defined unit.

    Results and Conclusions

    1. Participation of the tutor and students

    Of the 5200 messages, with an average of 93 words and 5.8 sentences per message, 622

    messages have been registered tutor. The tutor's participation in the forum equivalent to a

    proportion of approximately 12% of total posts. A message from the tutor may contain several

    categories of indicators, since all the messages contain elements of a social nature, such as

    greetings and farewells, stimuli, reinforcements. The distribution of the functions of guardian

    of the messages is by number of occurrences in Table 3 and the distribution of messages from

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    22/26

    students is presented as a percentage of occurrences in Table 4.

    Table 3. Results of the tutor's interventions in the forum by category

    Intervention Tutor

    F 37 Results1. Communicate the objectives and / or terms and conditions of the debate. 40

    2. Propose topics for discussion. 40

    3. Creates a climate of debate, positive and friendly (welcome, greetings, encouragement and

    reinforcement). 622

    4. Shaping the discussion. 56

    5. Redirect the discussion when it is beyond the subject. 48

    6. Present the different perspectives (external to the debate) on the subject, opposing

    viewpoints or conflicting. 767. Provide guidance and suggestions for the debate forward. 57

    8. Comment shares (individual) students. 68

    9. Comment students' various interventions and to establish correlations among them 101

    10. Asking students to explanations, justifications or developments messages. 49 students

    11. Clarify and develop ideas. 59

    12. Respond to inquiries and questions from students and give expert opinions and advice. 56

    13. Mediate conflicts. 0

    Although the literature refers to mediating conflicts, no incidents analyzed in the forums.

    Table 4. The involvement of students in the forum by category

    Code Description% By Category

    OPINIONS 1. Assumptions or assertions, denials or merely opinionated. 58.5%

    2. Agreement or disagreement in relation to other locations, either outside or from other

    forum participants.

    3. Reference to testing, personal or others.

    THINKING /

    ARGUMENT

    INDUCTION /

    DEDUCTION 4. Lessons implied, without a complete explicit argument

    32.9%

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    23/26

    5. Induction from experience (personal or others), or deduction from theoretical knowledge.

    6. Conclusions or assumptions, or interpretations, or fulfillment conditions stated.

    ESTIMATED /

    EVALUATION 7. Substantiated forecast of implications or consequences. 7.7%

    8. Assessment of implications or assumptions, or consequences, or conditions of realization.9. Presentation of solutions.

    DIVERGENT THINKING 10. Restructuring based theme / issue. Syntheses. 0,9

    2. Membership levels

    Membership levels were measured by Cramer's V, were considerably higher association of

    more than 0.400, was considered a moderate association between pairs of categories in the

    range between 0.250 and 0.399. Below this level, the levels of association were consideredweak. We considered only the association between the tasks of mentoring, and level 3 of

    reflection (recoded).

    The strong associations between the tasks of mentoring and reflection were: 1) to model the

    discussion, 2) open to students asking for clarifications, explanations or developments

    message and 3) various interventions of students commenting and making associations

    between them.

    Study limitations and future prospects

    The difficulties and limitations of this study relate to issues of both theoretical and

    methodological nature.

    Methodological in nature is the difficulty in achieving acceptable levels of agreement and

    reveal the stability of the encodings. This theory has to do with the large number of categories

    within each variable, which complicates the process of stabilization.

    The difficulty in achieving acceptable levels of agreement suggests that systems being

    developed for discussion in which participants are to encode their messages in a limited

    number of categories, from a frame of reference provided by their tutors, this exercise also

    works as a strategy for self -regulation.

    It was also noted differences between the various lines of discussion related to the topics

    being discussed at the group composition, which suggests the need to understand what their

    specialty, especially when some students play the role of mentoring, which puts us in the

    imperative seek to understand the forum in its multidimensional and interpret the patterns

    that emerge from the analysis of data for the research questions that need to be placed to

    allow an integrated study of the variables.

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    24/26

    The results also suggest clues to the structure of the message triggering the debate and careful

    attention not only to its sequel, the flow of ideas from one post to another, but also the core

    messages, around which new developments arise. Hence there may be a taxonomy of open

    questions that lead the dialogue to their cognitive levels above and light the modus operandi

    of the tutor.It also follows from the results of the hypothesis that more interactive technology solutions

    that facilitate the handling of information in the forum but, above all, that students need not

    only for reflection and time to do it, but also for monitoring and driving appropriate by the

    tutor.

    The shortage of units in the category of restructuring based theme / problem may be related

    to the complexity of the issues, the lack of information and the ability of students to gather,

    the mere lack of time to develop the issues or the way the Tutoring is carried out. In this

    respect, it is possible to dispense with one or two students participating in the forum andcharge them to make a summary of the debate.

    References

    Anderson, T., Rourke, L. , Garrison, R., Archer, W. (2001). Assessing teaching presence in a

    computer conferencing context. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 5 (2), 1-17.

    Arranz, V., Aguado, D., Lucia, B. (2008). Acciones en un estudio a practical case. Revista de

    Psicologa del Trabajo y de las Organizaciones, 24 (1), 5-23.

    Berge, Z. L. (1995). Facilitating computer conferencing: recommendations from the field.

    Educational Technology, 35 (1), 22-30.

    Boggiano, A., Flink, C., Shields, A., Seelbach, A., Barret, M. (1993). Use of techniques Promoting

    students 'self-determination: effects on students' analytic problem-solving skills. Motivation

    and Emotion, 17, 319-336.

    Chan, B. (2002). The study of the relationship Between tutor's personality and teaching

    effectiveness: Does culture make a difference? IRRODL, 3 (2). OEI

    http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/110/190> [Accessed: Nov. 2009].

    Deci, E. & Ryan, R. (1985). Intrinsic motivation and self-determination in human behavior. New

    York: Plenum Press.

    Deci, E., Vallerano, R. , Pelletier, L. & Ryan, R. (1991). Motivation in education: the self-

    determination perspective. The Educational Psychologist 26, 325-346.

    Facione, P. A. (1990). Executive summary - critical thinking. A statement of expert consensus

    for purposes of educational assessment and instruction. Millbrae, CA: California Academic

    Press.

    Hamza, K., Nash, William (1996). Creating and Fostering a creative learning environment That

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    25/26

    Promotes thinking and problem solving skills. Reports-Research/Technical.

    Hiltz, S., Turoff, M. (1985). Structuring computer-mediated communications to Avoid

    information overload. Communications of the ACM (28:7), 680-689.

    Keegan, D. (1998). The two modes of distance education. Open Learning, November, 25-29.

    Jorge I. (2001). Navigate in the Portuguese: the online program for teacher education inPortuguese secondary school: formative evaluation [NATIONAL LIBRARY OF PORTUGAL,

    policopiado Text].

    Jorge, I (2006). Navigate in the Portuguese: the online program for teacher education in

    Portuguese secondary education: critical thinking, participation, interaction and mentoring.

    [NATIONAL LIBRARY OF PORTUGAL, policopiado Text].

    Jorge I. (2010). Social presence and cognitive presence in an online training program for

    teachers of Portuguese: relation and prediction. IODL / ICEM, ANADOLU niversitesi, Eskisehir,

    Conference proceedings.Jorge I. (2010). Computer mediated communication: research trends

    (Henri, 1992, Calvani, Molino & Fini, 2010). Meta-analysis study. Paper presented at the

    Conference ticEDUCA. London: Institute of Education.

    Jorge, I (forthcoming). The importance of the tasks of e-tutor in the e-forum: perceptions of

    students in postgraduate courses in e-learning systems and mixed: differences in gender, age,

    academic and technological experience.

    Mazzolini, M. Maddison, S. (2003). Sage, guide or ghost? The effect of Instructor Intervention

    on student participation in online discussion forums. Computers & Education, 40, 237-253.

    Mason, R. (1997). Moderating educational computer conferencing. Available online: OEI

    (Accessed: 23 Jan. 2004).

    Paulsen, M. (1995). Moderating educational computer conferences. In Berge, Zane L. & Collins,

    M. (Eds.). Computer-mediated communication and the online classroom in distance education.

    Cresskill, NJ: Hampton Press.

    Paulus, T. & Roberts, G. (2006). Learning through Dialogue: Online Case Studies in educational

    psychology. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14 (4), 731-754.

    Rossman, M. (1999). Successful online teaching using an asynchronous learner discussion

    forum. Journal of Asynchronous Learning Networks, 3, 91-97.

    Salmon, G. (2000). E-Moderating: the key to teaching online. London: Kogan Page.

    Schank, R. C. (2001). Designing world-class e-learning. New York: McGraw-Hill.

    Strickland, C. (1998). A Personal Experience with Electronic Community. CMC Magazine. OEI

    [Accessed: Mar. 2007]

    Swan, K., Shea, P., Fredericksen, E., Pickett, A., Pelz, W. , & Maher, G. (2000). Building

  • 8/3/2019 Challenges 2011 ultima verso

    26/26

    knowledge building communities: Consistency, contact and communication in the virtual

    classroom. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 23 (4), 359-383

    Tait, J. (2004). The tutor / facilitator role in student retention. Open Learning, 19, 1, 97-109.

    Tonelson, S. (1981). The Importance of teacher self concept to create a healthy psychological

    environment for learning. Education, 102, 96-100.